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Chemical Compound Review

Isopurine     7H-purine

Synonyms: Purine, purin, beta-Purine, purine-ring, SureCN3157, ...
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Disease relevance of Purine


Psychiatry related information on Purine


High impact information on Purine

  • CONCLUSIONS: BL22 can induce complete remissions in patients with hairy-cell leukemia that is resistant to treatment with purine analogues [11].
  • BACKGROUND: Hairy-cell leukemia that is resistant to treatment with purine analogues, including cladribine, has a poor prognosis [11].
  • This loop E region is distorted by three "cross-strand purine stacks" and three novel, water-mediated noncanonical base pairs and stabilized by a four metal ion zipper [12].
  • Both porin classes interact with purine nucleoside triphosphates, which down-regulate pore size and cause a shift in voltage dependence and ion selectivity [13].
  • However, this effect on GCN4 translation is different from the response to amino acid or purine starvation [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of Purine


Biological context of Purine

  • In all four junction-type sites Int protein interacts primarily with the same face of the DNA helix, as determined by those purine nitrogens that are protected against methylation by dimethylsulfate [20].
  • The consensus sequence for E74A protein binding, determined by random-sequence oligonucleotide selection, contains an invariant purine-rich core sequence, C/AGGAA [21].
  • Transcription initiates at the first purine within a conserved sequence, 5'-RYA-YA-3', 31 or 32 bp from the upstream inverted repeat [22].
  • Abnormal amounts of adenine, 8-hydroxyade-nine and 2,8-dihydroxyadenine (25 per cent of total purine metabolites) appeared in the urine of the propositus and his clinically normal brother, but not in heterozygotes or a control [23].
  • A point mutation in a purine nucleotide biosynthetic enzyme, adenylosuccinate lyase (ASL), segregates with the disorder [24].

Anatomical context of Purine


Associations of Purine with other chemical compounds

  • Another difference is that in all Dictyostelium mRNAs. the nucleoside X is a purine [30].
  • In addition to their application in identifying such genetic lesions, our results show that neither hydrogen bonds nor purine and pyrimidine structures are required to form a base pair with high efficiency and selectivity [31].
  • Regions that are highly conserved between muscle and yeast enzymes include the active site, the glycogen storage site and possibly the glucose and purine inhibition sites [32].
  • To demonstrate dependence, we challenged the ileum by removing drug or by adding the selective purine receptor antagonist, 8-phenyltheophylline, which does not substantially inhibit phosphodiesterase, or caffeine [33].
  • The three-dimensional structure of a ternary complex of the purine repressor, PurR, bound to both its corepressor, hypoxanthine, and the 16-base pair purF operator site has been solved at 2.7 A resolution by x-ray crystallography [34].

Gene context of Purine

  • The basal level transcription of the HIS4 gene is under the control of two genes, BAS1 and BAS2, which are also required for the control of purine biosynthesis [35].
  • Kinetic analysis of recombinant mutant PRS1s showed that widely dispersed point mutations in the X chromosome-linked PRPS1 gene encoding the PRS1 isoform result in alteration of the allosteric mechanisms regulating both enzyme inhibition by purine nucleotides and activation by inorganic phosphate [36].
  • The sequence and binding specificity of UaY, the specific regulator of the purine utilization pathway in Aspergillus nidulans, suggest an evolutionary relationship with the PPR1 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae [37].
  • The sequence Gly-X-Gly-Lys-Thr, believed to be involved in the interaction with purine nucleotides in proteins that bind and hydrolyze the nucleotides, is present in the RAD3 primary structure between amino acids 45 and 49 [38].
  • Genomic cloning of methylthioadenosine phosphorylase: a purine metabolic enzyme deficient in multiple different cancers [39].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Purine


  1. Presynaptic dopaminergic deficits in Lesch-Nyhan disease. Ernst, M., Zametkin, A.J., Matochik, J.A., Pascualvaca, D., Jons, P.H., Hardy, K., Hankerson, J.G., Doudet, D.J., Cohen, R.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Lasting remissions in hairy-cell leukemia induced by a single infusion of 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine. Piro, L.D., Carrera, C.J., Carson, D.A., Beutler, E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Riboswitches control fundamental biochemical pathways in Bacillus subtilis and other bacteria. Mandal, M., Boese, B., Barrick, J.E., Winkler, W.C., Breaker, R.R. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. 2',3'-dideoxyinosine (ddI) in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or AIDS-related complex. A phase I trial. Lambert, J.S., Seidlin, M., Reichman, R.C., Plank, C.S., Laverty, M., Morse, G.D., Knupp, C., McLaren, C., Pettinelli, C., Valentine, F.T. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Newer purine analogues for the treatment of hairy-cell leukemia. Saven, A., Piro, L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Purine phosphoribosyltransferase in gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Van Woert, M.H., Yip, L.C., Balis, M.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  7. Trophic effects of purines in neurons and glial cells. Rathbone, M.P., Middlemiss, P.J., Gysbers, J.W., Andrew, C., Herman, M.A., Reed, J.K., Ciccarelli, R., Di Iorio, P., Caciagli, F. Prog. Neurobiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Idiopathic uric acid lithiasis: epidemiologic and metabolic aspects. Zechner, O., Pflüger, H., Scheiber, V. J. Urol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  9. Special devices as aids in the management of child self-mutilation in the Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. Letts, R.M., Hobson, D.A. Pediatrics (1975) [Pubmed]
  10. A comparison of the dose response effects of pyrimidine ribonucleosides and adenosine on sleep in rats. Radulovacki, M., Virus, R.M., Rapoza, D., Crane, R.A. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1985) [Pubmed]
  11. Efficacy of the anti-CD22 recombinant immunotoxin BL22 in chemotherapy-resistant hairy-cell leukemia. Kreitman, R.J., Wilson, W.H., Bergeron, K., Raggio, M., Stetler-Stevenson, M., FitzGerald, D.J., Pastan, I. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Metals, motifs, and recognition in the crystal structure of a 5S rRNA domain. Correll, C.C., Freeborn, B., Moore, P.B., Steitz, T.A. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Modulation of Neisseria porin (PorB) by cytosolic ATP/GTP of target cells: parallels between pathogen accommodation and mitochondrial endosymbiosis. Rudel, T., Schmid, A., Benz, R., Kolb, H.A., Lang, F., Meyer, T.F. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. The UV response involving the Ras signaling pathway and AP-1 transcription factors is conserved between yeast and mammals. Engelberg, D., Klein, C., Martinetto, H., Struhl, K., Karin, M. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Myogenic hyperuricemia. A common pathophysiologic feature of glycogenosis types III, V, and VII. Mineo, I., Kono, N., Hara, N., Shimizu, T., Yamada, Y., Kawachi, M., Kiyokawa, H., Wang, Y.L., Tarui, S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase mutant glioma cells: diminished monamine oxidase activity. Skaper, S.D., Seegmiller, J.E. Science (1976) [Pubmed]
  17. Decreased methionine synthesis in purine nucleoside-treated T and B lymphoblasts and reversal by homocysteine. Boss, G.R., Pilz, R.B. J. Clin. Invest. (1984) [Pubmed]
  18. Characterization of the deoxycytidine kinase promoter in human lymphoblast cell lines. Chen, E.H., Johnson, E.E., Vetter, S.M., Mitchell, B.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Free radicals and pathogenesis during ischemia and reperfusion of the cat small intestine. Nilsson, U.A., Schoenberg, M.H., Aneman, A., Poch, B., Magadum, S., Beger, H.G., Lundgren, O. Gastroenterology (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. Patterns of lambda Int recognition in the regions of strand exchange. Ross, W., Landy, A. Cell (1983) [Pubmed]
  21. Molecular interactions within the ecdysone regulatory hierarchy: DNA binding properties of the Drosophila ecdysone-inducible E74A protein. Urness, L.D., Thummel, C.S. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  22. Organization of minicircle genes for guide RNAs in Trypanosoma brucei. Pollard, V.W., Rohrer, S.P., Michelotti, E.F., Hancock, K., Hajduk, S.L. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. Complete deficiency of adenine phosphoribosyltransferase. Report of a family. Van Acker, K.J., Simmonds, H.A., Potter, C., Cameron, J.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  24. A mutation in adenylosuccinate lyase associated with mental retardation and autistic features. Stone, R.L., Aimi, J., Barshop, B.A., Jaeken, J., Van den Berghe, G., Zalkin, H., Dixon, J.E. Nat. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  25. Abnormal purine metabolism and purine overproduction in a patient deficient in purine nucleoside phosphorylase. Cohen, A., Doyle, D., Martin, D.W., Ammann, A.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  26. Characterization of a cell culture model for the study of adenosine deaminase- and purine nucleoside phosphorylase-deficient immunologic disease. Ullman, B., Cohen, A., Martin, D.W. Cell (1976) [Pubmed]
  27. Analysis of RNA initiated in isolated mouse myeloma nuclei using purine nucleoside 5'[gamma-S]triphosphates as affinity probes. Smith, M.M., Reeve, A.E., Huang, R.C. Cell (1978) [Pubmed]
  28. Control of nucleolar RNA synthesis by the intracellular pool sizes of ATP and GTP. Grummt, I., Grummt, F. Cell (1976) [Pubmed]
  29. Increased proton conductance pathway in brown adipose tissue mitochondria of rats exhibiting diet-induced thermogenesis. Brooks, S.L., Rothwell, N.J., Stock, M.J., Goodbody, A.E., Trayhurn, P. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  30. 5' terminal nucleotide sequences of the messenger RNA's of Dictyostelium discoideum. Dottin, R.P., Weiner, A.M., Lodish, F. Cell (1976) [Pubmed]
  31. A specific partner for abasic damage in DNA. Matray, T.J., Kool, E.T. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Convergent and divergent evolution of regulatory sites in eukaryotic phosphorylases. Hwang, P.K., Fletterick, R.J. Nature (1986) [Pubmed]
  33. Novel form of drug-dependence--on adenosine in guinea pig ileum. Collier, H.O., Tucker, J.F. Nature (1983) [Pubmed]
  34. Crystal structure of LacI member, PurR, bound to DNA: minor groove binding by alpha helices. Schumacher, M.A., Choi, K.Y., Zalkin, H., Brennan, R.G. Science (1994) [Pubmed]
  35. Multiple global regulators control HIS4 transcription in yeast. Arndt, K.T., Styles, C., Fink, G.R. Science (1987) [Pubmed]
  36. The genetic and functional basis of purine nucleotide feedback-resistant phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase superactivity. Becker, M.A., Smith, P.R., Taylor, W., Mustafi, R., Switzer, R.L. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  37. The sequence and binding specificity of UaY, the specific regulator of the purine utilization pathway in Aspergillus nidulans, suggest an evolutionary relationship with the PPR1 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Suárez, T., de Queiroz, M.V., Oestreicher, N., Scazzocchio, C. EMBO J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  38. Mutation of lysine-48 to arginine in the yeast RAD3 protein abolishes its ATPase and DNA helicase activities but not the ability to bind ATP. Sung, P., Higgins, D., Prakash, L., Prakash, S. EMBO J. (1988) [Pubmed]
  39. Genomic cloning of methylthioadenosine phosphorylase: a purine metabolic enzyme deficient in multiple different cancers. Nobori, T., Takabayashi, K., Tran, P., Orvis, L., Batova, A., Yu, A.L., Carson, D.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  40. The purine path to chemotherapy. Elion, G.B. Science (1989) [Pubmed]
  41. Bone marrow transplantation only partially restores purine metabolites to normal in adenosine deaminase-deficient patients. Hirschhorn, R., Roegner-Maniscalco, V., Kuritsky, L., Rosen, F.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1981) [Pubmed]
  42. Oxygen metabolites stimulate thromboxane production and vasoconstriction in isolated saline-perfused rabbit lungs. Tate, R.M., Morris, H.G., Schroeder, W.R., Repine, J.E. J. Clin. Invest. (1984) [Pubmed]
  43. Disruption of the purine nucleotide cycle by inhibition of adenylosuccinate lyase produces skeletal muscle dysfunction. Swain, J.L., Hines, J.J., Sabina, R.L., Harbury, O.L., Holmes, E.W. J. Clin. Invest. (1984) [Pubmed]
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