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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The effect of three broad-spectrum antimicrobials on mononuclear cell responses to encapsulated bacteria: evidence for down-regulation of cytokine mRNA transcription by trovafloxacin.

The effect of trovafloxacin, ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone on cytokine production of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was examined. PBMC responses were measured after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lipoteichoic acid (LTA) or killed or viable Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. Trovafloxacin inhibited the production of tumour necrosis factor alpha ( TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6 and IL-8 by PBMCs after stimulation with either LPS or LTA by 83%. Similar inhibition occurred in PBMCs incubated with killed or live bacteria and trovafloxacin, but not with ciprofloxacin or ceftriaxone. The relevance of this in vitro observation was explored by examining TNF-alpha and IL-6 responses in trovafloxacin-treated mice. Serum concentrations of both cytokines 1 h after LPS challenge were 95% less than serum concentrations in mice that were not given trovafloxacin. Reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction studies of the mechanisms determining cytokine down-regulation demonstrated that trovafloxacin reduced TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 mRNA to levels similar to those of unstimulated cells. These observations indicate that trovafloxacin can consistently and significantly reduce production of cytokines that play an important role in sepsis. In vitro, this effect can occur in the presence of bacteriolysis and is associated with inhibition of transcription of cytokine genes.[1]


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