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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Xenobiotic induction of cytochrome P450 2B1 (CYP2B1) is mediated by the orphan nuclear receptor constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and requires steroid co-activator 1 (SRC-1) and the transcription factor Sp1.

The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activates the expression of a reporter gene attached to the phenobarbital-response element (PBRE) of the cytochrome P450 2B1 (CYP2B1) gene in response to the barbiturate phenobarbital and the plant product picrotoxin. The xenobiotic-mediated increase in transactivation occurs in transfected primary hepatocytes and in liver transfected by biolistic-particle-mediated DNA transfer, but not in the transformed cell lines HepG2, CV-1 and HeLa, which support only constitutive activation of gene expression by CAR. Steroid co-activator 1 (SRC-1) enhances both constitutive and xenobiotic- induced CAR- mediated transactivation via the CYP2B1 PBRE in transfected primary hepatocytes. The nuclear receptor 1 ( NR1) site of the PBRE is sufficient for CAR-mediated transactivation, but additional sequences within the PBRE, and hence the proteins that bind to them, are required for the interaction of CAR with SRC-1. The NR2 site of the PBRE binds proteins other than CAR, including an unidentified nuclear receptor heterodimerized with retinoid X receptor alpha. By binding to the proximal promoter of CYP2B1, the transcription factor Sp1 increases both basal transcription and xenobiotic-induced expression via the PBRE. Thus induction of CYP2B1 expression by xenobiotics is mediated by the nuclear receptor CAR and, for optimal expression, requires SRC-1 and Sp1.[1]


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