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Gene Review

Rxra  -  retinoid X receptor alpha

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Nr2b1, Nuclear receptor subfamily 2 group B member 1, Retinoic acid receptor RXR-alpha, Retinoid X receptor alpha
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Disease relevance of Rxra

  • We examined the effects of different fatty acids (myristic, stearic, oleic, linolenic, and arachidonic acids, EPA, and the peroxisomal proliferator TTA) and several hormones (the glucocorticoid analogue dexamethasone, insulin, and retinoic acid) on the RXRalpha mRNA and protein levels in rat hepatoma cells and cultured hepatocytes [1].
  • Increase in the level of RXRalpha in hepatocytes by infection with the RXRalpha-expressing adenovirus resulted in enhancement of the T3-dependent increase in 5'DI mRNA [2].

High impact information on Rxra


Biological context of Rxra


Anatomical context of Rxra


Associations of Rxra with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Rxra

  • In the presence of RA, the coactivators SRC-1 and GRIP-1 formed complexes with RAR beta and RXR alpha which are bound to an oligonucleotide specifying a RARE site in the promoter [16].

Regulatory relationships of Rxra


Other interactions of Rxra

  • Results from this study suggest that alterations in peroxisomal metabolism observed in the senescent liver may be a result of the decline in the availability of RXR alpha receptor, and not the primary PPAR alpha receptor [7].
  • Although the expression of PPARalpha/RXRalpha leads to the induction of UCP2 mRNA and protein, this is not accompanied by reduced hyperpolarization of the mitochondrial membrane, indicating that under these conditions, increased UCP2 expression is insufficient for dissipation of the mitochondrial proton gradient [10].
  • These results suggest that the possible perinatal RA production by RALDHs might regulate various RA-target genes including CRBPII and RARalpha through RXRalpha or HNF-4 in the small intestine [18].
  • Whereas DEX increased the amount of RXRalpha mRNA, it did not affect the expression of other possible factors such as steroid receptor coactivator-1 and the binding protein of cAMP response element-binding protein [2].
  • Electrophoretic mobility shift assay using a putative nuclear receptor-binding element on rat HNF-1 alpha gene revealed that HNF-4 homodimer, but not RXRalpha homodimer, bound to this element [19].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Rxra


  1. Gene transcription of the retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha) is regulated by fatty acids and hormones in rat hepatic cells. Steineger, H.H., Arntsen, B.M., Spydevold, O., Sørensen, H.N. J. Lipid Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Glucocorticoids increase retinoid-X receptor alpha (RXRalpha) expression and enhance thyroid hormone action in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. Yamaguchi, S., Murata, Y., Nagaya, T., Hayashi, Y., Ohmori, S., Nimura, Y., Seo, H. J. Mol. Endocrinol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Bile acids regulate the ontogenic expression of ileal bile acid binding protein in the rat via the farnesoid X receptor. Hwang, S.T., Urizar, N.L., Moore, D.D., Henning, S.J. Gastroenterology (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Heterodimeric interaction between retinoid X receptor alpha and orphan nuclear receptor OR1 reveals dimerization-induced activation as a novel mechanism of nuclear receptor activation. Wiebel, F.F., Gustafsson, J.A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Vitamin D interferes with transactivation of the growth hormone gene by thyroid hormone and retinoic acid. Garcia-Villalba, P., Jimenez-Lara, A.M., Aranda, A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Liver glucokinase can be activated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma. Kim, S.Y., Kim, H.I., Park, S.K., Im, S.S., Li, T., Cheon, H.G., Ahn, Y.H. Diabetes (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Senescence-associated decline in hepatic peroxisomal enzyme activities corresponds with diminished levels of retinoid X receptor alpha, but not peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. Chao, C., Youssef, J., Rezaiekhaleigh, M., Birnbaum, L.S., Badr, M. Mech. Ageing Dev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha activates transcription of the brown fat uncoupling protein-1 gene. A link between regulation of the thermogenic and lipid oxidation pathways in the brown fat cell. Barbera, M.J., Schluter, A., Pedraza, N., Iglesias, R., Villarroya, F., Giralt, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Retinoid X receptor alpha represses GATA-4-mediated transcription via a retinoid-dependent interaction with the cardiac-enriched repressor FOG-2. Clabby, M.L., Robison, T.A., Quigley, H.F., Wilson, D.B., Kelly, D.P. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) potentiates, whereas PPARgamma attenuates, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells. Ravnskjaer, K., Boergesen, M., Rubi, B., Larsen, J.K., Nielsen, T., Fridriksson, J., Maechler, P., Mandrup, S. Endocrinology (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Distribution of mRNAs encoding the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, beta, and gamma and the retinoid X receptor alpha, beta, and gamma in rat central nervous system. Cullingford, T.E., Bhakoo, K., Peuchen, S., Dolphin, C.T., Patel, R., Clark, J.B. J. Neurochem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Functional characterization of a peroxisome proliferator response-element located in the intron 3 of rat peroxisomal thiolase B gene. Hansmannel, F., Clémencet, M.C., Le Jossic-Corcos, C., Osumi, T., Latruffe, N., Nicolas-Francés, V. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Placental expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in rat pregnancy and the effect of increased glucocorticoid exposure. Hewitt, D.P., Mark, P.J., Waddell, B.J. Biol. Reprod. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Sterol response element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c) is involved in the polyunsaturated fatty acid suppression of hepatic S14 gene transcription. Mater, M.K., Thelen, A.P., Pan, D.A., Jump, D.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. All-trans-retinoic acid inhibition of Pro alpha1(I) collagen gene expression in fetal rat skin fibroblasts: identification of a retinoic acid response element in the Pro alpha1(I) collagen gene. Meisler, N.T., Parrelli, J., Gendimenico, G.J., Mezick, J.A., Cutroneo, K.R. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Regulation of alpha 2(I) collagen expression in stellate cells by retinoic acid and retinoid X receptors through interactions with their cofactors. Wang, L., Tankersley, L.R., Tang, M., Potter, J.J., Mezey, E. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. AhR and PPARalpha: antagonistic effects on CYP2B and CYP3A, and additive inhibitory effects on CYP2C11. Shaban, Z., Soliman, M., El-Shazly, S., El-Bohi, K., Abdelazeez, A., Kehelo, K., Kim, H.S., Muzandu, K., Ishizuka, M., Kazusaka, A., Fujita, S. Xenobiotica (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Developmental changes of the expression of the genes regulated by retinoic acid in the small intestine of rats. Ogura, Y., Suruga, K., Takase, S., Goda, T. Life Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Postnatal changes in gene expression of retinal dehydrogenase and retinoid receptors in liver of rats. Ogura, Y., Suruga, K., Mochizuki, H., Yamamoto, T., Takase, S., Goda, T. Life Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Evidence for a novel cardiac-enriched retinoid X receptor partner. Cresci, S., Clabby, M.L., Kelly, D.P. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Retinoic acid receptor alpha mediates growth inhibition by retinoids in rat pancreatic carcinoma DSL-6A/C1 cells. Brembeck, F.H., Kaiser, A., Detjen, K., Hotz, H., Foitzik, T., Buhr, H.J., Riecken, E.O., Rosewicz, S. Br. J. Cancer (1998) [Pubmed]
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