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Gene Review

Nr1i3  -  nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I,...

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: CAR, Car, Constitutive androstane receptor, Nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 3
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Disease relevance of Nr1i3

  • These results demonstrate that GHS rats have high levels of CaR gene expression and CaR protein that may contribute to the hypercalciuria and calcium nephrolithiasis [1].
  • In conclusion, a synthetic polyamine-deficient diet had a significant general analgesic effect on Car-induced mechanical hyperalgesia [2].
  • Mt. and Car. treatment can significantly increase survival rate (P<0.05), decrease LVW/BW (P<0.05) and MMP-2 activity (P<0.05), decrease size of cardiomyocytes and interstitial fibrosis compared with operation group [3].

High impact information on Nr1i3


Chemical compound and disease context of Nr1i3


Biological context of Nr1i3


Anatomical context of Nr1i3

  • This pattern of gene regulation occurred in liver and small intestine independent of PXR, constitutive androstane receptor, or hepatic nuclear factor-4alpha expression, suggesting that other factors are involved in controlling the extent of coordinated gene expression in response to a PXR agonist [12].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate expression of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) in the pregnant rat cervix [11].
  • Analogues of oxytocin containing D-Trp, 2-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene-1-carboxylic acid (Atc) or 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-1-carboxylic acid (Car) with R or S configurations in position 2 were synthetized, and their receptor bindings were tested on isolated guinea-pig uterus, rat liver and rat kidney inner medulla plasma membranes [13].
  • After ligation of the left coronary artery, 100 surviving female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: (1) AMI control (n=25), (2) carvedilol (Car, 1 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1)) (n=25), (3) losartan (Los, 3 mg x kg(-1) x day (-1)) (n=25), and (4) Car (1 mg x kg (-1). day(-1)) + Los (3 mg x kg(-1) x day (-1)) (n=25) [14].

Associations of Nr1i3 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of Nr1i3

  • It has been suggested recently that calmodulin acts as an intracellular "Ca-receptor," and that many Ca-dependent cellular activities are mediated in some manner by Ca-calmodulin [19].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Nr1i3

  • Both Northern blotting and real-time reverse transcription-PCR revealed increased basal CaR mRNA expression levels in GHS rat kidney [1].
  • Western blotting revealed a four-fold increase in CaR protein in GHS rat renal tissue, and 1,25(OH)2D3 administration increased renal CaR in both GHS and NC rats [1].
  • Inflammation was induced with a unilateral subcutaneous injection of Car in a plantar hindpaw in rats fed without (control group) or with (deficiency group) a polyamine-deficient diet [2].
  • This analgesic effect was confirmed by the electrocardiogram recording that showed a significant increase in heart rate in the control group after Car injection compared with the deficiency group that showed a decrease in heart rate under general anesthesia [2].


  1. Regulation of renal calcium receptor gene expression by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats. Yao, J.J., Bai, S., Karnauskas, A.J., Bushinsky, D.A., Favus, M.J. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. An evaluation of a polyamine-deficient diet for the treatment of inflammatory pain. Estebe, J.P., Legay, F., Gentili, M., Wodey, E., Leduc, C., Ecoffey, C., Moulinoux, J.P. Anesth. Analg. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Effect of matrine and carvedilol on collagen and MMPs activity of hypertrophy myocardium induced by pressure overload. Zhang, Y.J., Xiang, M.X., San, J., Cheng, G., Wang, S.S. Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Mutational analysis of the CYP2B2 phenobarbital response unit and inhibitory effect of the constitutive androstane receptor on phenobarbital responsiveness. Paquet, Y., Trottier, E., Beaudet, M.J., Anderson, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. The peroxisome proliferator response element of the gene encoding the peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzyme enoyl-CoA hydratase/3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase is a target for constitutive androstane receptor beta/9-cis-retinoic acid receptor-mediated transactivation. Kassam, A., Winrow, C.J., Fernandez-Rachubinski, F., Capone, J.P., Rachubinski, R.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. The environmental pollutant 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)ethylene induces rat hepatic cytochrome P450 2B and 3A expression through the constitutive androstane receptor and pregnane X receptor. Wyde, M.E., Bartolucci, E., Ueda, A., Zhang, H., Yan, B., Negishi, M., You, L. Mol. Pharmacol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Characterization of nuclear localization signals and cytoplasmic retention region in the nuclear receptor CAR. Kanno, Y., Suzuki, M., Nakahama, T., Inouye, Y. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Microarray analysis on CYPs expression in pregnant rats after treatment with pregnenolone-16alpha-carbonitrile and phenobarbital. Ejiri, N., Katayama, K., Kiyosawa, N., Baba, Y., Doi, K. Exp. Mol. Pathol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Xenobiotic induction of cytochrome P450 2B1 (CYP2B1) is mediated by the orphan nuclear receptor constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and requires steroid co-activator 1 (SRC-1) and the transcription factor Sp1. Muangmoonchai, R., Smirlis, D., Wong, S.C., Edwards, M., Phillips, I.R., Shephard, E.A. Biochem. J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Upregulation of cytochromes P450 2B in rat liver by orphenadrine. Murray, M., Fiala-Beer, E., Sutton, D. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Constitutive androstane receptor expression in the rat cervix during gestation. Rychlik, D.F., Bieber, E., Phillippe, M. J. Soc. Gynecol. Investig. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Activators of the rat pregnane X receptor differentially modulate hepatic and intestinal gene expression. Hartley, D.P., Dai, X., He, Y.D., Carlini, E.J., Wang, B., Huskey, S.E., Ulrich, R.G., Rushmore, T.H., Evers, R., Evans, D.C. Mol. Pharmacol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Synthesis of oxytocin antagonists containing conformationally constrained amino acids in position 2. Tóth, G.K., Bakos, K., Penke, B., Pávó, I., Varga, C., Török, G., Péter, A., Fülöp, F. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Comparative effects of carvedilol and losartan alone and in combination for preventing left ventricular remodeling after acute myocardial infarction in rats. Yang, Y.J., Tang, Y.D., Ruan, Y.M., Zhang, P., Zhou, Y.W., Wang, P.H., Gao, R.L., Chen, J.L., Chen, Z.J. Circ. J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Impaired nuclear translocation of CAR in hepatic preneoplastic lesions: association with an attenuated CYP2B induction by phenobarbital. Numazawa, S., Shindo, S., Maruyama, K., Chibana, F., Kawahara, Y., Ashino, T., Tanaka, S., Yoshida, T. FEBS Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Squalestatin 1-inducible expression of rat CYP2B: evidence that an endogenous isoprenoid is an activator of the constitutive androstane receptor. Kocarek, T.A., Mercer-Haines, N.A. Mol. Pharmacol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Mechanism of induction of cytochrome p450 enzymes by the proestrogenic endocrine disruptor pesticide-methoxychlor: interactions of methoxychlor metabolites with the constitutive androstane receptor system. Blizard, D., Sueyoshi, T., Negishi, M., Dehal, S.S., Kupfer, D. Drug Metab. Dispos. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Nonadditive hepatic tumor promoting effects by a mixture of two structurally different polychlorinated biphenyls in female rat livers. Dean, C.E., Benjamin, S.A., Chubb, L.S., Tessari, J.D., Keefe, T.J. Toxicol. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Effects of trifluoperazine on renin secretion of rat kidney slices. Churchill, P.C., Churchill, M.C. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1983) [Pubmed]
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