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Gene Review

Sp1  -  Sp1 transcription factor

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Transcription factor Sp1
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Disease relevance of Sp1


Psychiatry related information on Sp1


High impact information on Sp1

  • Sp1, whose binding site in the PDGF-B promoter overlaps that of Egr-1, occupies this element in unstimulated cells and is displaced by increasing amounts of Egr-1 [6].
  • Here, we investigate the mechanisms of Sp1 pre-mRNA trans-splicing with human cells expressing modified Sp1 transgenes [7].
  • These results suggest that high blood pressure is a stimulus which upregulates PDGF A-chain gene expression in VSMCs of SHRs, resulting in an autocrine enhancement in hypertensive vascular hypertrophy, and that the activation of the gene may be mediated through increases in Sp1 in these cells [8].
  • While one is for the rat equivalent to human Sp1, the other encodes a primary structure of 244 amino acids, a novel DNA binding protein designated BTEB [3].
  • This enhancer can activate comparably well promoters containing binding sites for either glucocorticoid receptor, Sp1 factor, or octamer factor [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Sp1


Biological context of Sp1


Anatomical context of Sp1


Associations of Sp1 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Sp1


Enzymatic interactions of Sp1

  • Thus, expression of the PNMT gene seems to be modulated through competitive binding of phosphorylated Sp1 and MAZ to their consensus elements in the promoter [30].

Regulatory relationships of Sp1


Other interactions of Sp1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Sp1


  1. Sp1 is up-regulated in cellular and transgenic models of Huntington disease, and its reduction is neuroprotective. Qiu, Z., Norflus, F., Singh, B., Swindell, M.K., Buzescu, R., Bejarano, M., Chopra, R., Zucker, B., Benn, C.L., DiRocco, D.P., Cha, J.H., Ferrante, R.J., Hersch, S.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Cathepsin L gene expression and promoter activation in rodent granulosa cells. Sriraman, V., Richards, J.S. Endocrinology (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Two regulatory proteins that bind to the basic transcription element (BTE), a GC box sequence in the promoter region of the rat P-4501A1 gene. Imataka, H., Sogawa, K., Yasumoto, K., Kikuchi, Y., Sasano, K., Kobayashi, A., Hayami, M., Fujii-Kuriyama, Y. EMBO J. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Role of O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine modification in the subcellular distribution of alpha4 phosphoprotein and Sp1 in rat lymphoma cells. Dauphinee, S.M., Ma, M., Too, C.K. J. Cell. Biochem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Insulin dynamically regulates calmodulin gene expression by sequential o-glycosylation and phosphorylation of sp1 and its subcellular compartmentalization in liver cells. Majumdar, G., Harrington, A., Hungerford, J., Martinez-Hernandez, A., Gerling, I.C., Raghow, R., Solomon, S. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Egr-1-induced endothelial gene expression: a common theme in vascular injury. Khachigian, L.M., Lindner, V., Williams, A.J., Collins, T. Science (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Delay in synthesis of the 3' splice site promotes trans-splicing of the preceding 5' splice site. Takahara, T., Tasic, B., Maniatis, T., Akanuma, H., Yanagisawa, S. Mol. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Blood pressure regulates platelet-derived growth factor A-chain gene expression in vascular smooth muscle cells in vivo. An autocrine mechanism promoting hypertensive vascular hypertrophy. Negoro, N., Kanayama, Y., Haraguchi, M., Umetani, N., Nishimura, M., Konishi, Y., Iwai, J., Okamura, M., Inoue, T., Takeda, T. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. A single DNA-binding transcription factor is sufficient for activation from a distant enhancer and/or from a promoter position. Schatt, M.D., Rusconi, S., Schaffner, W. EMBO J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Insulin deprivation leads to deficiency of Sp1 transcription factor in H-411E hepatoma cells and in streptozotocin-induced diabetic ketoacidosis in the rat. Pan, X., Solomon, S.S., Borromeo, D.M., Martinez-Hernandez, A., Raghow, R. Endocrinology (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Interaction of p38 and Sp1 in a mechanical force-induced, beta 1 integrin-mediated transcriptional circuit that regulates the actin-binding protein filamin-A. D'Addario, M., Arora, P.D., Ellen, R.P., McCulloch, C.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Sp1 inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells by repressing p21WAF1/Cip1 transcription and cyclin D1-Cdk4-p21WAF1/Cip1 complex formation. Kavurma, M.M., Khachigian, L.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. SREBP-1c and Sp1 interact to regulate transcription of the gene for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) in the liver. Chakravarty, K., Wu, S.Y., Chiang, C.M., Samols, D., Hanson, R.W. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Insulin-like growth factor I increases rat peptide YY promoter activity through Sp1 binding sites. Wang, G., Leiter, A.B., Englander, E.W., Greeley, G.H. Endocrinology (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. A highly active homeobox gene promoter regulated by Ets and Sp1 family members in normal granulosa cells and diverse tumor cell types. Rao, M.K., Maiti, S., Ananthaswamy, H.N., Wilkinson, M.F. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Structural and functional analysis of the insulin-like growth factor I receptor gene promoter. Werner, H., Bach, M.A., Stannard, B., Roberts, C.T., LeRoith, D. Mol. Endocrinol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. H1t/GC-box and H1t/TE1 element are essential for promoter activity of the testis-specific histone H1t gene. Wilkerson, D.C., Wolfe, S.A., Grimes, S.R. Biol. Reprod. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Vascular smooth muscle cell-specific regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(WAF1/Cip1) transcription by Sp1 is mediated via distinct cis-acting positive and negative regulatory elements in the proximal p21(WAF1/Cip1) promoter. Kavurma, M.M., Khachigian, L.M. J. Cell. Biochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Involvement of nuclear transcription factor Sp1 in regulating glucose transporter-1 gene expression during rat trophoblast differentiation. Okamoto, Y., Sakata, M., Yamamoto, T., Nishio, Y., Adachi, K., Ogura, K., Yamaguchi, M., Takeda, T., Tasaka, K., Murata, Y. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Carvedilol effectively blocks oxidative stress-mediated downregulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase 2 gene transcription through modification of Sp1 binding. Koitabashi, N., Arai, M., Tomaru, K., Takizawa, T., Watanabe, A., Niwano, K., Yokoyama, T., Wuytack, F., Periasamy, M., Nagai, R., Kurabayashi, M. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Histone deacetylase inhibitors prevent oxidative neuronal death independent of expanded polyglutamine repeats via an Sp1-dependent pathway. Ryu, H., Lee, J., Olofsson, B.A., Mwidau, A., Dedeoglu, A., Escudero, M., Flemington, E., Azizkhan-Clifford, J., Ferrante, R.J., Ratan, R.R., Deodoglu, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Insulin stimulates and diabetes inhibits O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase and O-glycosylation of Sp1. Majumdar, G., Wright, J., Markowitz, P., Martinez-Hernandez, A., Raghow, R., Solomon, S.S. Diabetes (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Cholesterol biosynthesis from lanosterol. A concerted role for Sp1 and NF-Y-binding sites for sterol-mediated regulation of rat 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase gene expression. Kim, J.H., Lee, J.N., Paik, Y.K. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. The proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6, up-regulates calcium-sensing receptor gene transcription via Stat1/3 and Sp1/3. Canaff, L., Zhou, X., Hendy, G.N. J. Biol. Chem. (2008) [Pubmed]
  25. Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors are required for trans-activation of the human SERCA2 promoter in cardiomyocytes. Brady, M., Koban, M.U., Dellow, K.A., Yacoub, M., Boheler, K.R., Fuller, S.J. Cardiovasc. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Using DNA microarray to identify Sp1 as a transcriptional regulatory element of insulin-like growth factor 1 in cardiac muscle cells. Li, T., Chen, Y.H., Liu, T.J., Jia, J., Hampson, S., Shan, Y.X., Kibler, D., Wang, P.H. Circ. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Ability of Egr1 to activate tyrosine hydroxylase transcription in PC12 cells. Cross-talk with AP-1 factors. Papanikolaou, N.A., Sabban, E.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. The 5'-upstream region of the rat phospholipase C-beta 3 gene contains two critical Sp1 sites and an HIV Inr-like element. Kang, J.S., Lee, H.B., Rhee, S.G., Park, K., Yoo, O.J. Gene (1997) [Pubmed]
  29. Characterization of cis-acting elements in the rat ATP citrate-lyase gene promoter. Moon, Y.A., Park, S.W., Kim, K.S. Exp. Mol. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. Regulation of the rat phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase gene by transcription factors Sp1 and MAZ. Her, S., Claycomb, R., Tai, T.C., Wong, D.L. Mol. Pharmacol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Shear stress induces hepatocyte PAI-1 gene expression through cooperative Sp1/Ets-1 activation of transcription. Nakatsuka, H., Sokabe, T., Yamamoto, K., Sato, Y., Hatakeyama, K., Kamiya, A., Ando, J. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  32. Transcription factor Sp1 phosphorylation induced by shear stress inhibits membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase expression in endothelium. Yun, S., Dardik, A., Haga, M., Yamashita, A., Yamaguchi, S., Koh, Y., Madri, J.A., Sumpio, B.E. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3alpha and specificity protein 1 interact to upregulate intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in ischemic-reperfused myocardium and vascular endothelium. Yang, X.P., Irani, K., Mattagajasingh, S., Dipaula, A., Khanday, F., Ozaki, M., Fox-Talbot, K., Baldwin, W.M., Becker, L.C. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
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