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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
 
 
 
 
 

Cyclin D1 is an early target in hepatocyte proliferation induced by thyroid hormone (T3).

The thyroid hormone (T3) affects cell growth, differentiation, and regulates metabolic functions via its interaction with the thyroid hormone nuclear receptors (TRs). The mechanism by which TRs mediate cell growth is unknown. To investigate the mechanisms responsible for the mitogenic effect of T3, we have determined changes in activation of transcription factors, mRNA levels of immediate early genes, and levels of proteins involved in the progression from G1 to S phase of the cell cycle. We show that hepatocyte proliferation induced by a single administration of T3 to Wistar rats occurred in the absence of activation of AP-1, NF-kappa B, and STAT3 or changes in the mRNA levels of the immediate early genes c-fos, c-jun, and c-myc. These genes are considered to be essential for liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH). On the other hand, T3 treatment caused an increase in cyclin D1 mRNA and protein levels that occurred much more rapidly compared to liver regeneration after 2/3 PH. The early increase in cyclin D1 expression was associated with accelerated onset of DNA synthesis, as demonstrated by a 20-fold increase of bromodeoxyuridine-positive hepatocytes at 12 h after T3 treatment and by a 20-fold increase in mitotic activity at 18 h. An early increase of cyclin D1 expression was also observed after treatment with nafenopin, a ligand of a nuclear receptor (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha) of the same superfamily of steroid/thyroid receptors. T3 treatment also resulted in increased expression of cyclin E, E2F, and p107 and enhanced phosphorylation of pRb, the ultimate substrate in the pathway leading to transition from G1 to S phase. The results demonstrate that cyclin D1 induction is one of the earlier events in hepatocyte proliferation induced by T3 and suggest that this cyclin might be a common target responsible for the mitogenic activity of ligands of nuclear receptors.[1]

References

  1. Cyclin D1 is an early target in hepatocyte proliferation induced by thyroid hormone (T3). Pibiri, M., Ledda-Columbano, G.M., Cossu, C., Simbula, G., Menegazzi, M., Shinozuka, H., Columbano, A. FASEB J. (2001) [Pubmed]
 
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