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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

New family of glutathionyl-biomimetic ligands for affinity chromatography of glutathione-recognising enzymes.

Three anthraquinone glutathionyl-biomimetic dye ligands, comprising as terminal biomimetic moiety glutathione analogues (glutathionesulfonic acid, S-methyl-glutathione and glutathione) were synthesised and characterised. The biomimetic ligands were immobilised on agarose gel and the affinity adsorbents, together with a nonbiomimetic adsorbent bearing Cibacron Blue 3GA, were studied for their purifying ability for the glutathione-recognising enzymes, NAD+-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FaDH) from Candida boidinii, NAD(P)+-dependent glutathione reductase from S. cerevisiae (GSHR) and recombinant maize glutathione S-transferase I (GSTI). All biomimetic adsorbents showed higher purifying ability for the target enzymes compared to the nonbiomimetic adsorbent, thus demonstrating their superior effectiveness as affinity chromatography materials. In particular, the affinity adsorbent comprising as terminal biomimetic moiety glutathionesulfonic acid (BM1), exhibited the highest purifying ability for FaDH and GSTI, whereas, the affinity adsorbent comprising as terminal biomimetic moiety methyl-glutathione (BM2) exhibited the highest purifying ability for GSHR. The BM1 adsorbent was integrated in a facile two-step purification procedure for FaDH. The purified enzyme showed a specific activity equal to 79 U/mg and a single band after sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. Molecular modelling was employed to visualise the binding of BM1 with FaDH, indicating favourable positioning of the key structural features of the biomimetic dye. The anthraquinone moiety provides the driving force for the correct positioning of the glutathionyl-biomimetic moiety in the binding site. It is located deep in the active site cleft forming many favourable hydrophobic contacts with hydrophobic residues of the enzyme. The positioning of the glutathione-like biomimetic moiety is primarily achieved by the strong ionic interactions with the Zn2+ ion of FaDH and Arg 114, and by the hydrophobic contacts made with Tyr 92 and Met 140. Molecular models were also produced for the binding of BM1 and BM3 (glutathione-substituted) to GSTI. In both cases the biomimetic dye forms multiple hydrophobic interactions with the enzyme through binding to a surface pocket. While the glutathioine moiety of BM3 is predicted to bind in the crystallographically observed way, an alternative, more favourable mode seems to be responsible for the better purification results achieved with BM1.[1]


  1. New family of glutathionyl-biomimetic ligands for affinity chromatography of glutathione-recognising enzymes. Melissis, S.C., Rigden, D.J., Clonis, Y.D. Journal of chromatography. A. (2001) [Pubmed]
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