The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Shigella invasion of macrophage requires the insertion of IpaC into the host plasma membrane. Functional analysis of IpaC.

Shigella infects residential macrophages via the M cell entry, after which the pathogen induces macrophage cell death. The bacterial strategy of macrophage infection, however, remains largely speculative. Wild type Shigella flexneri (YSH6000) invaded macrophages more efficiently than the noninvasive mutants, where YSH6000 induced large scale lamellipodial extension including ruffle formation around the bacteria. When macrophages were infected with the noninvasive ipaC mutant, the invasiveness and induction of membrane extension were dramatically reduced as compared with that of YSH6000. J774 macrophages infected with YSH6000 showed tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins including paxillin and c-Cbl, and this pattern was distinctive from those stimulated by Salmonella typhimurium or phorbol ester. Upon addition of IpaC into the external medium of macrophages, membrane extensions were rapidly induced, and this promoted uptake of Escherichia coli. The exogenously added IpaC was found to be integrated into the host cell membrane as detected by immunostaining. The IpaC domain required for the induction of membrane extension from J774 was narrowed down within the region of residues 117-169, which contains a putative membrane-spanning sequence. Our data indicate that Shigella directs its own entry into macrophages, and the IpaC domain which is required for the association with its host membrane is crucial.[1]


  1. Shigella invasion of macrophage requires the insertion of IpaC into the host plasma membrane. Functional analysis of IpaC. Kuwae, A., Yoshida, S., Tamano, K., Mimuro, H., Suzuki, T., Sasakawa, C. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities