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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Saccharomyces cerevisiae expresses three phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidases.

The GPX1, GPX2, and GPX3 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been reported previously to encode glutathione peroxidases (GPxs). We re-examined the sequence alignments of these proteins with GPxs from higher eukaryotes. Sequence identities, particularly with phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidases (PHGPxs), were enhanced markedly by introduction to the yeast sequences of gaps that are characteristic of PHGPxs. PHGPx-like activity was detectable in extracts from wild-type S. cerevisiae and was diminished in extracts from gpx1 Delta, gpx2 Delta, and gpx3 Delta deletion mutants; PHGPx activity was almost absent in a gpx1 Delta/gpx2 Delta/gpx3 Delta triple mutant. Studies with cloned GPX1, GPX2, and GPX3 expressed heterologously in Escherichia coli confirmed that these genes encode proteins with PHGPx activity. An S. cerevisiae gpx1 Delta/gpx2 Delta/gpx3 Delta mutant was defective for growth in medium supplemented with the oxidation-sensitive polyunsaturated fatty acid linolenate (18:3). This sensitivity to 18:3 was more marked than sensitivity to H(2)O(2). Unlike H(2)O(2) toxicity, delayed toxicity of 18:3 toward gpx1 Delta/gpx2 Delta/gpx3 Delta cells was correlated with the gradual incorporation of 18:3 into S. cerevisiae membrane lipids and was suppressible with alpha-tocopherol, an inhibitor of lipid peroxidation. The results show that the GPX genes of S. cerevisiae, previously reported to encode GPxs, encode PHGPxs (PHGPx1, PHGPx2, and PHGPx3) and that these enzymes protect yeast against phospholipid hydroperoxides as well as nonphospholipid peroxides during oxidative stress. This is the first report of an organism that expresses PHGPx from more than one gene and produces PHGPx in the absence of a GPx.[1]


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