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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Role of aquaporin-2 gene expression in hyponatremic rats with chronic vasopressin-induced antidiuresis.

BACKGROUND: In a state of chronic arginine vasopressin (AVP) excess, the action of antidiuresis has been attenuated, resulting in some water diuresis. This state has been termed an "AVP escape" phenomenon. The present study was designed to determine what mechanisms underlie this attenuation in renal concentrating ability, which is found in chronic AVP excess, both in the presence and absence of volume expansion. METHODS: Two groups of experimental rats were established. One group received solid chow with water ad libitum. The second group received chow, which was offered as a liquid diet. Both groups received subcutaneous administration of 1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (dDAVP) at 5 ng/h for the entire observation period of one week. Over the course of the observation period, tissue levels of aquaporin-2 (AQP-2) mRNA and protein were measured. Levels of AVP V2 receptor were monitored, both by measuring mRNA levels and by ligand-binding studies using [3H]AVP. Tissue levels of cAMP also were determined. RESULTS: Experimental rats with the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) had severe hyponatremia below 120 mmol/L, and impaired urinary concentrating ability, during the seven-day observation period. In contrast, the dDAVP-excess rats, given solid chow, maintained maximally concentrated urine and normal levels of serum sodium. The down-regulation of AVP V2 receptor function was comparable in the two groups. The maximal binding capacity (Bmax) fell to the nadir on day 2 and was thereafter suppressed at approximately 60% of control rats during the experiment. Up-regulation of AQP-2 mRNA expression was found, but this up-regulation was significantly less in the SIADH rats compared with the dDAVP-excess rats (153.5 +/- 29.8% vs. 323.7 +/- 23.8% on day 7, P < 0.05). This differential response between these two groups was affirmed by measured differences in AQP-2 protein levels, both in tissue and in urinary excretion. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the attenuated regulation of the AQP-2 gene leads to the decrease in urinary concentrating ability in the experimental SIADH rats, suffering from hypervolemic state, compared with the normonatremic rats receiving AVP. Either hypervolemia or hypotonicity may diminish the post-receptor signaling of AVP in renal collecting duct cells, under the chronic AVP excess state found in SIADH.[1]


  1. Role of aquaporin-2 gene expression in hyponatremic rats with chronic vasopressin-induced antidiuresis. Saito, T., Higashiyama, M., Nagasaka, S., Sasaki, S., Saito, T., Ishikawa, S.E. Kidney Int. (2001) [Pubmed]
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