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Gene Review

Avp  -  arginine vasopressin

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: AVP-NPII, DI, VP, Vas, Vasopressin-neurophysin 2-copeptin
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Disease relevance of Avp

  • The localization of CRF-41 related peptide was studied in the brain and posterior pituitary of the homozygous rats for the inherited diabetes insipidus (Brattleboro strain, DI) and of the Long-Evans rats (LE) as control [1].
  • BACKGROUND: Although, pharmacological intervention with a selective arginine vasopressin (AVP) V(2) receptor antagonist has been demonstrated to be effective for syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), its long-term administration has some therapeutic limitations [2].
  • Studies were performed to determine the mechanism underlying deficient arginine vasopressin (AVP)-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity in chronic renal failure (CRF) [3].
  • These findings demonstrate that acute cholestasis in the rat is associated with suppression of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responsiveness to stress and demonstrate a dissociation between mechanisms of ACTH regulation mediated by CRF and AVP [4].
  • Plasma arginine vasopressin was also significantly higher in rats with cirrhosis (control = 1.77 +/- 0.16 and cirrhotic rats = 4.14 +/- 0.62 pg/ml, n = 9, p < 0.002) [5].

Psychiatry related information on Avp

  • We hypothesized that ovarian steroids increase the onset of maternal behavior by a central mechanism involving OXY and possibly AVP [6].
  • In rats, the basal levels of plasma AVP and OXT (means: 2.63 pg/ml and 6.80 pg/ml, respectively) are increased significantly after 24 h, 48 h and 72 h of water deprivation [7].
  • During infusion of anti-AVP antibodies and dPTyr(Me)AVP and during the first days of recovery from AVP infusion, the ultradian rhythmic distribution of sleep and wakefulness was still present, but the amplitude of the circadian rhythm was reduced [8].
  • Thus, variations in the magnitude of HPA responses to stress among males are explained in part by individual differences in circulating T levels, and the MPOA is a critical site for this effect via the inhibition of hypophysial AVP [9].
  • In addition, coadministration of JTP-4819 and substance P, arginine-vasopressin or thyrotropin-releasing hormone (at doses at which each drug alone did not prolong the retention time) improved the retention time of rats with scopolamine-induced amnesia [10].

High impact information on Avp


Chemical compound and disease context of Avp


Biological context of Avp

  • Whereas steady state levels of OT mRNA were markedly increased throughout lactation, those of AVP mRNA were only transiently (initially) elevated, and the blood levels of these hormones were not significantly altered in lactating as compared with cycling virgin and postlactating rats [18].
  • We hypothesize that the effects are mediated by rapid, direct vasodilation induced by CRH that decreases baroreceptor input to the brain stem, leading to a rapid release of AVP that induces the antidiuresis by direct action on the V(2)Rs in the kidney [19].
  • AVP effectively inhibited [3H]AVP binding with an IC50 of 1.5 X 10(-7) M, while oxytocin showed a somewhat higher IC50 (0.9 X 10(-6) M) and did not achieve complete inhibition of binding [20].
  • Our results show that the response of the AVP-eGFP fusion gene to chronic salt loading is exaggerated, and humoral responses such as AVP and OXT and the body fluid homeostasis are maintained in AVP-eGFP transgenic rats [21].
  • Effects of rat corticotrophin-releasing factor, arginine vasopressin and oxytocin on the secretions of adrenocorticotrophic hormone and corticosterone in the fetal rat in late gestation: in vivo and in vitro studies [22].

Anatomical context of Avp


Associations of Avp with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Avp

  • During atrial pulsation, a stimulus mimicking volume loading and associated with a reduction of systemic ACTH levels, we observed a significant decline in portal concentrations of immunoreactive AVP coupled with a nonsignificant trend toward reduced portal immunoreactive CRF levels [30].
  • In addition to these differences in the regulation of biosynthesis and processing, AVP peptides were axonally transported to the pituitary 3 d earlier than OT peptides, and in far greater (20-fold) abundance [31].
  • Arginine vasopressin interacts with the vasopressin type 1a receptor (V1aR) to initiate physiological effects such as vasoconstriction of blood vessels and glycogenolysis [32].
  • The BK-receptor complex was not affected by angiotensin II or by arginine vasopressin and atrial natriuretic factor [33].

Enzymatic interactions of Avp


Co-localisations of Avp

  • Moreover, AVP and AVP mRNA were found to be colocalized with oxytocin in a few neurons [35].

Regulatory relationships of Avp

  • Antagonists for oxytocin ([des-glycinamide9,d(CH2)5(1),O-Me-Tyr2,Thr4,Orn8]vaso tocin), V2 ([d(CH2)5(1),D-Ile2,Ile4,Arg8]vasopressin), and V1a ([d(CH2)5(1),O-Me-Tyr2,Arg8]vasopressin) receptors partially inhibited the [Ca2+]i response induced by 10 nM AVP (89.5, 81.6, and 51.4% inhibition, respectively) [36].
  • Arginine vasopressin stimulates phosphorylation of aquaporin-2 in rat renal tissue [37].
  • CRF immunostainings were enhanced by colchicine treatment in LE rats and by DDAVP therapy in DI rats [1].
  • RESULTS: AVP inhibited IL-1 beta-induced nitrite production in a dose- and time-dependent manner with concomitant changes in intracellular cGMP contents [25].
  • To further specify the primary point of dysregulation of AQP channels that are activated by the arginine vasopressin/cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AVP/cAMP) pathway, different components of adenylyl cyclase complex were separately examined for their cAMP-generating activities [38].

Other interactions of Avp


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Avp

  • To determine the fundamental daily patterns of ACTH secretagogue gene transcription in unstressed rats, we measured CRH and AVP hnRNA levels at 1- to 4-h intervals throughout the day using in situ hybridization [24].
  • In addition, the identity of the HA-stimulated neurons was investigated by dual antigen immunohistochemistry visualizing AVP-, OT-, or CRH-IR in the neurons showing increased c-fos expression [43].
  • Rats were either water restricted or water loaded to modify the circulating AVP levels, and expressions of NOS isoforms were assessed by Western blot analysis [40].
  • Incubation of cells with AVP (1 nM to 3 microM) increased PGE2 synthesis measured by radioimmunoassay in a concentration-dependent fashion up to 2 1/2-fold over control; 1-desamino-8-D-arginine did not increase PGE2 synthesis [44].
  • Systemic AVP-induced changes were maintained in hypophysectomized rats but were not observed after adrenalectomy [45].


  1. Comparative immunocytochemical localization of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF-41) and neurohypophysial peptides in the brain of Brattleboro and Long-Evans rats. Burlet, A., Tonon, M.C., Tankosic, P., Coy, D., Vaudry, H. Neuroendocrinology (1983) [Pubmed]
  2. Lithium effectively complements vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist in the treatment of hyponatraemia of SIADH rats. Kazama, I., Arata, T., Michimata, M., Hatano, R., Suzuki, M., Miyama, N., Sanada, S., Sato, A., Satomi, S., Ejima, Y., Sasaki, S., Matsubara, M. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. (2007) [Pubmed]
  3. Vasopressin resistance in chronic renal failure. Evidence for the role of decreased V2 receptor mRNA. Teitelbaum, I., McGuinness, S. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Suppression of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responsiveness to stress in a rat model of acute cholestasis. Swain, M.G., Patchev, V., Vergalla, J., Chrousos, G., Jones, E.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Vasopressin gene expression in rats with experimental cirrhosis. Kim, J.K., Summer, S.N., Howard, R.L., Schrier, R.W. Hepatology (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Oxytocin antiserum delays onset of ovarian steroid-induced maternal behavior. Pedersen, C.A., Caldwell, J.D., Johnson, M.F., Fort, S.A., Prange, A.J. Neuropeptides (1985) [Pubmed]
  7. Simultaneous measurement of arginine vasopressin and oxytocin in plasma and neurohypophyses by radioimmunoassay. Landgraf, R. Endokrinologie. (1981) [Pubmed]
  8. Effects of chronic icv infusion of vasopressin on sleep-waking cycle of rats. Arnauld, E., Bibene, V., Meynard, J., Rodriguez, F., Vincent, J.D. Am. J. Physiol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. The inhibitory effect of testosterone on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses to stress is mediated by the medial preoptic area. Viau, V., Meaney, M.J. J. Neurosci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. JTP-4819: a novel prolyl endopeptidase inhibitor with potential as a cognitive enhancer. Toide, K., Iwamoto, Y., Fujiwara, T., Abe, H. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Long-term gene therapy in the CNS: reversal of hypothalamic diabetes insipidus in the Brattleboro rat by using an adenovirus expressing arginine vasopressin. Geddes, B.J., Harding, T.C., Lightman, S.L., Uney, J.B. Nat. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Molecular cloning and expression of a rat V1a arginine vasopressin receptor. Morel, A., O'Carroll, A.M., Brownstein, M.J., Lolait, S.J. Nature (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. Arginine vasopressin enhances pHi regulation in the presence of HCO3- by stimulating three acid-base transport systems. Ganz, M.B., Boyarsky, G., Sterzel, R.B., Boron, W.F. Nature (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Independent regulation of neuropeptide mRNA level and poly(A) tail length. Carter, D.A., Murphy, D. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  15. Regulation of aquaporin mRNA expression in rat kidney by water intake. Murillo-Carretero, M.I., Ilundáin, A.A., Echevarria, M. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Neurohypophysial hormones in the adrenal medulla. Ang, V.T., Jenkins, J.S. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1984) [Pubmed]
  17. [1-deaminopenicillamine,4-valine]-8-D-arginine-vasopressin, a highly potent inhibitor of the vasopressor response to arginine-vasopressin. Manning, M., Lowbridge, J., Stier, C.T., Haldar, J., Sawyer, W.H. J. Med. Chem. (1977) [Pubmed]
  18. Lactation as a model for naturally reversible hypercorticalism plasticity in the mechanisms governing hypothalamo-pituitary- adrenocortical activity in rats. Fischer, D., Patchev, V.K., Hellbach, S., Hassan, A.H., Almeida, O.F. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Corticotropin-releasing hormone causes antidiuresis and antinatriuresis by stimulating vasopressin and inhibiting atrial natriuretic peptide release in male rats. Gutkowska, J., Jankowski, M., Mukaddam-Daher, S., McCann, S.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Arginine vasopressin and adrenocorticotropin release: correlation between binding characteristics and biological activity in anterior pituitary dispersed cells. Spinedi, E., Negro-Vilar, A. Endocrinology (1984) [Pubmed]
  21. Exaggerated Response of Arginine Vasopressin-Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein Fusion Gene to Salt Loading without Disturbance of Body Fluid Homeostasis in Rats. Fujio, T., Fujihara, H., Shibata, M., Yamada, S., Onaka, T., Tanaka, K., Morita, H., Dayanithi, G., Kawata, M., Murphy, D., Ueta, Y. J. Neuroendocrinol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Effects of rat corticotrophin-releasing factor, arginine vasopressin and oxytocin on the secretions of adrenocorticotrophic hormone and corticosterone in the fetal rat in late gestation: in vivo and in vitro studies. Deloof, S., Montel, V., Chatelain, A. Eur. J. Endocrinol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Release of vasopressin within the rat paraventricular nucleus in response to emotional stress: a novel mechanism of regulating adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion? Wotjak, C.T., Kubota, M., Liebsch, G., Montkowski, A., Holsboer, F., Neumann, I., Landgraf, R. J. Neurosci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Corticotropin-releasing hormone and arginine vasopressin gene transcription in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of unstressed rats: daily rhythms and their interactions with corticosterone. Watts, A.G., Tanimura, S., Sanchez-Watts, G. Endocrinology (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Arginine vasopressin inhibits interleukin-1 beta-stimulated nitric oxide and cyclic guanosine monophosphate production via the V1 receptor in cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells. Kusano, E., Tian, S., Umino, T., Tetsuka, T., Ando, Y., Asano, Y. J. Hypertens. (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. Patterns of adrenocorticotropin secretagog release with hypoglycemia, novelty, and restraint after colchicine blockade of axonal transport. Romero, L.M., Plotsky, P.M., Sapolsky, R.M. Endocrinology (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. Arginine vasopressin and corticotropin releasing factor: binding to ovine anterior pituitary membranes. Shen, P.J., Clarke, I.J., Canny, B.J., Funder, J.W., Smith, A.I. Endocrinology (1990) [Pubmed]
  28. Corticotropin-releasing factor, but not arginine vasopressin, stimulates concentration-dependent increases in ACTH secretion from a single corticotrope. Implications for intracellular signals in stimulus-secretion coupling. Canny, B.J., Jia, L.G., Leong, D.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  29. A novel type of vasopressin receptor on anterior pituitary corticotrophs? Baertschi, A.J., Friedli, M. Endocrinology (1985) [Pubmed]
  30. Evidence for multifactor regulation of the adrenocorticotropin secretory response to hemodynamic stimuli. Plotsky, P.M., Bruhn, T.O., Vale, W. Endocrinology (1985) [Pubmed]
  31. Differential biosynthesis and posttranslational processing of vasopressin and oxytocin in rat brain during embryonic and postnatal development. Altstein, M., Gainer, H. J. Neurosci. (1988) [Pubmed]
  32. Genomic characterization of the sheep vasopressin V1a receptor gene and promoter, with assignment to bands q23-24 of sheep chromosome 3 and cattle chromosome 5. Koukoulas, I., Webb, G.C., Bottema, C.D., Gill, C., Johnston, C.I., Aldred, G.P. Gene (1999) [Pubmed]
  33. B2-kinin receptor like binding in rat glomerular membranes. Bascands, J.L., Pécher, C., Cabos, G., Girolami, J.P. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1989) [Pubmed]
  34. Vasopressin phosphorylates HSP27 in aortic smooth muscle cells. Akamatsu, S., Nakajima, K., Ishisaki, A., Matsuno, H., Tanabe, K., Takei, M., Takenaka, M., Hirade, K., Yoshimi, N., Suga, H., Oiso, Y., Kato, K., Kozawa, O. J. Cell. Biochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. Coordinate hormonal and synaptic regulation of vasopressin messenger RNA. Baldino, F., O'Kane, T.M., Fitzpatrick-McElligott, S., Wolfson, B. Science (1988) [Pubmed]
  36. Vasopressin and oxytocin receptors coupled to Ca2+ mobilization in rat inner medullary collecting duct. Maeda, Y., Han, J.S., Gibson, C.C., Knepper, M.A. Am. J. Physiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  37. Arginine vasopressin stimulates phosphorylation of aquaporin-2 in rat renal tissue. Nishimoto, G., Zelenina, M., Li, D., Yasui, M., Aperia, A., Nielsen, S., Nairn, A.C. Am. J. Physiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  38. Amphotericin B decreases adenylyl cyclase activity and aquaporin-2 expression in rat kidney. Kim, S.W., Yeum, C.H., Kim, S., Oh, Y., Choi, K.C., Lee, J. J. Lab. Clin. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  39. Different localization and regulation of two types of vasopressin receptor messenger RNA in microdissected rat nephron segments using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Terada, Y., Tomita, K., Nonoguchi, H., Yang, T., Marumo, F. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  40. Arginine vasopressin modulates expression of neuronal NOS in rat renal medulla. Martin, P.Y., Bianchi, M., Roger, F., Niksic, L., Féraille, E. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  41. Vasopressin and oxytocin reduce plasma prolactin levels of conscious rats in basal and stress conditions. Study of the characteristics of the receptor involved. Mormede, P., Vincent, J.D., Kerdelhue, B. Life Sci. (1986) [Pubmed]
  42. The role of oxytocin receptors and vasopressin V1a receptors in uterine contractions in rats: implications for tocolytic therapy with oxytocin antagonists. Chan, W.Y., Wo, N.C., Manning, M. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  43. Histamine stimulates c-fos expression in hypothalamic vasopressin-, oxytocin-, and corticotropin-releasing hormone-containing neurons. Kjaer, A., Larsen, P.J., Knigge, U., Møller, M., Warberg, J. Endocrinology (1994) [Pubmed]
  44. The effect of arginine vasopressin and its analogs on the synthesis of prostaglandin E2 by rat renal medullary interstitial cells in culture. Beck, T.R., Hassid, A., Dunn, M.J. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1980) [Pubmed]
  45. Arginine-vasopressin mediates central and peripheral glucose regulation in response to carotid body receptor stimulation with Na-cyanide. Montero, S., Mendoza, H., Valles, V., Lemus, M., Alvarez-Buylla, R., de Alvarez-Buylla, E.R. J. Appl. Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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