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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Hyponatremia


Psychiatry related information on Hyponatremia


High impact information on Hyponatremia


Chemical compound and disease context of Hyponatremia


Biological context of Hyponatremia


Anatomical context of Hyponatremia

  • It may not be coincidental that two principal markers of an unfavorable prognosis in patients with heart failure, high plasma norepinephrine levels and hyponatremia, share baroreceptor dysfunction as a common theme [25].
  • The quantity of AVP peptide in the tumor cell lines was more closely associated with hyponatremia in the patients (P = 0.0026, r2 = 0.28) than was the production of ANF peptide (P = 0.066, r2 = 0.12), although neither association was strong [26].
  • Thus, these results show that in the setting of extracellular fluid volume expansion, excessive water retention with hyponatremia can occur in the absence of increases in aquaporin-2 abundance [27].
  • In previous studies we developed a rat model in which demyelination is reproducibly produced following rapid correction of chronic hyponatremia and demonstrated that the development of demyelination in this model is strongly associated with NMR indices of blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption [28].
  • Different HE-precipitating factors, such as ammonia, benzodiazepines, inflammatory cytokines and hyponatremia induce or aggravate astrocyte swelling and additionally increase oxidative/nitrosative stress and protein tyrosine nitration [29].

Gene context of Hyponatremia

  • Orally active non-peptide-selective V2 receptor antagonists administered to patients with congestive cardiac failure decrease urinary concentrations of aquaporin-2, increase solute-free water clearance, and correct the hyponatremia [30].
  • However, urinary aquaporin-2 in hyponatremia was significantly increased when compared with the other two groups [31].
  • Thus, non-osmotic release of AVP in CHF upregulates AQP2 water channels, enhances water reabsorption and causes hyponatremia [32].
  • Laboratory studies disclosed hyponatremia, low plasma ACTH level (4.2 pmol/L), and a low cortisol level (27.6 nmol/L) [33].
  • Asymptomatic hyponatremia occurred in over half of subjects receiving 75 microg or larger doses of GDNF; it was symptomatic in several subjects [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Hyponatremia


  1. Aldosterone-receptor deficiency in pseudohypoaldosteronism. Armanini, D., Kuhnle, U., Strasser, T., Dorr, H., Butenandt, I., Weber, P.C., Stockigt, J.R., Pearce, P., Funder, J.W. N. Engl. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  2. Hyponatremia and inappropriate secretion of vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone) in patients with hypopituitarism. Oelkers, W. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Hyponatremia in the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. Rapid correction with urea, sodium chloride, and water restriction therapy. Decaux, G., Unger, J., Brimioulle, S., Mockel, J. JAMA (1982) [Pubmed]
  4. Therapy of hyponatremia in cirrhosis with a vasopressin receptor antagonist: a randomized double-blind multicenter trial. Gerbes, A.L., Gülberg, V., Ginès, P., Decaux, G., Gross, P., Gandjini, H., Djian, J. Gastroenterology (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Hyponatremia and arginine vasopressin secretion in patients with refractory hepatic ascites undergoing peritoneovenous shunting. Reznick, R.K., Langer, B., Taylor, B.R., Seif, S., Blendis, L.M. Gastroenterology (1983) [Pubmed]
  6. Malignant hypertensive crisis induced by chronic intrarenal norepinephrine infusion. Lohmeier, T.E., Tillman, L.J., Carroll, R.G., Brown, A.J., Guyton, A.C. Hypertension (1984) [Pubmed]
  7. Hyponatremia associated with carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine therapy: a review. Van Amelsvoort, T., Bakshi, R., Devaux, C.B., Schwabe, S. Epilepsia (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Intranasal desmopressin-associated hyponatremia: a case report and literature review. Bernstein, S.A., Williford, S.L. The Journal of family practice. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Regulation of hypothalamic arginine vasopressin messenger ribonucleic acid and pituitary arginine vasopressin content in fetal sheep: effects of acute tonicity alterations and fetal maturation. Zhao, X., Nijland, M.J., Ervin, M.G., Ross, M.G. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Preoperative hyponatremia as a clinical characteristic in elderly patients with large pituitary tumor. Nishizawa, S., Yokoyama, T., Yokota, N., Ohta, S. Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo) (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Reboxetine and hyponatremia. Ranieri, P., Franzoni, S., Trabucchi, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Sertraline and hyponatremia. Kessler, J., Samuels, S.C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Prostaglandins in severe congestive heart failure. Relation to activation of the renin--angiotensin system and hyponatremia. Dzau, V.J., Packer, M., Lilly, L.S., Swartz, S.L., Hollenberg, N.K., Williams, G.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  14. Taurine: possible role in osmotic regulation of mammalian heart. Thurston, J.H., Hauhart, R.E., Naccarato, E.F. Science (1981) [Pubmed]
  15. Mechanisms of altered water metabolism in psychotic patients with polydipsia and hyponatremia. Goldman, M.B., Luchins, D.J., Robertson, G.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  16. Plasma demeclocycline levels and nephrotoxicity. Correlation in hyponatremic cirrhotic patients. Miller, P.D., Linas, S.L., Schrier, R.W. JAMA (1980) [Pubmed]
  17. Chronic hyponatremic encephalopathy in postmenopausal women: association of therapies with morbidity and mortality. Ayus, J.C., Arieff, A.I. JAMA (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Hyponatremia induced by a combination of amiloride and hydrochlorothiazide. Strykers, P.H., Stern, R.S., Morse, B.M. JAMA (1984) [Pubmed]
  19. Tolbutamide-associated hyponatremia. Lichtenberg, L., Abraira, C. JAMA (1978) [Pubmed]
  20. The critical role of the adrenal gland in the renal regulation of acid-base equilibrium during chronic hypotonic expansion. Evidence that chronic hyponatremia is a potent stimulus to aldosterone secretion. Cohen, J.J., Hulter, H.N., Smithline, N., Melby, J.C., Schwartz, W.B. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  21. Hyponatremia: a prospective analysis of its epidemiology and the pathogenetic role of vasopressin. Anderson, R.J., Chung, H.M., Kluge, R., Schrier, R.W. Ann. Intern. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  22. Volume depletion and natriuresis in patients with a ruptured intracranial aneurysm. Wijdicks, E.F., Vermeulen, M., ten Haaf, J.A., Hijdra, A., Bakker, W.H., van Gijn, J. Ann. Neurol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  23. Increased natriuretic efficiency of furosemide in rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis. Jonassen, T.E., Sørensen, A.M., Petersen, J.S., Andreasen, F., Christensen, S. Hepatology (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Chronic hyponatremia due to resetting of the osmostat in a patient with gastric carcinoma. Wall, B.M., Crofton, J.T., Share, L., Cooke, C.R. Am. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  25. Baroreceptor function in congestive heart failure: effect on neurohumoral activation and regional vascular resistance. Hirsch, A.T., Dzau, V.J., Creager, M.A. Circulation (1987) [Pubmed]
  26. Atrial natriuretic factor and arginine vasopressin production in tumor cell lines from patients with lung cancer and their relationship to serum sodium. Gross, A.J., Steinberg, S.M., Reilly, J.G., Bliss, D.P., Brennan, J., Le, P.T., Simmons, A., Phelps, R., Mulshine, J.L., Ihde, D.C. Cancer Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. Renal expression of aquaporins in liver cirrhosis induced by chronic common bile duct ligation in rats. Fernández-Llama, P., Turner, R., Dibona, G., Knepper, M.A. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Blood-brain barrier disruption and complement activation in the brain following rapid correction of chronic hyponatremia. Baker, E.A., Tian, Y., Adler, S., Verbalis, J.G. Exp. Neurol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. Astrocyte swelling and protein tyrosine nitration in hepatic encephalopathy. Häussinger, D., Schliess, F. Neurochem. Int. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Vasopressin release, water channels, and vasopressin antagonism in cardiac failure, cirrhosis, and pregnancy. Schrier, R.W., Fassett, R.G., Ohara, M., Martin, P.Y. Proc. Assoc. Am. Physicians (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. Urinary excretion of aquaporin-2 and inappropriate secretion of vasopressin in hyponatremic patients after cerebral infarction. Takagi, J., Otake, K., Nakao, N., Takashashi, M., Hirooka, Y. Horm. Metab. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. Recent advances in the understanding of water metabolism in heart failure. Schrier, R.W., Martin, P.Y. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. Severe depression associated with ACTH, PRL, and GH deficiency: a case report. Kawai, K., Tamai, H., Nishikata, H., Kobayashi, N., Matsubayashi, S. Endocr. J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  34. Randomized, double-blind trial of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in PD. Nutt, J.G., Burchiel, K.J., Comella, C.L., Jankovic, J., Lang, A.E., Laws, E.R., Lozano, A.M., Penn, R.D., Simpson, R.K., Stacy, M., Wooten, G.F. Neurology (2003) [Pubmed]
  35. Correction of dilutional hyponatremia in severe chronic heart failure by converting-enzyme inhibition. Packer, M., Medina, N., Yushak, M. Ann. Intern. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  36. Neurological impact of vasopressin dysregulation and hyponatremia. Bhardwaj, A. Ann. Neurol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  37. Hyponatremia of hypothyroidism. Appropriate suppression of antidiuretic hormone levels. Macaron, C., Famuyiwa, O. Arch. Intern. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  38. Phase I trial of simultaneous administration of interleukin 2 and interleukin 4 subcutaneously. Whitehead, R.P., Friedman, K.D., Clark, D.A., Pagani, K., Rapp, L. Clin. Cancer Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  39. Therapeutic effects of tolvaptan, a potent, selective nonpeptide vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist, in rats with acute and chronic severe hyponatremia. Miyazaki, T., Yamamura, Y., Onogawa, T., Nakamura, S., Kinoshita, S., Nakayama, S., Fujiki, H., Mori, T. Endocrinology (2005) [Pubmed]
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