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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Lysophosphatidic acid stimulates p21-activated kinase in vascular smooth muscle cells.

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) has been shown to be a potent mitogen for vascular smooth muscle cells. Src-dependent transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases has been previously demonstrated to mediate LPA- induced activation of MAP kinase ERK1/2. Furthermore, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by LPA is also known to contribute to MAP kinase activation. Rho family small G-proteins Rac and Cdc42, and their immediate downstream effector p21-activated kinase ( PAK), have been demonstrated to mediate important effects on the cytoskeleton that are relevant for cell migration and proliferation. In the present report we evaluated stimulation of PAK by LPA in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) by PAK immunocomplex MBP in-gel kinase assay. LPA increased PAK activity 3-fold, peaking at 5 min and showing sustained activation up to 45 min. Inhibition of tyrosine kinases by pretreatment of VSMC with genistein or specific inhibition of Src by PP1 greatly diminished LPA- induced PAK activation, whereas specific inhibition of PDFG- and EGF receptor kinase by tyrphostin AG1296 and AG1478 had no effect. Furthermore, inhibition of Galpha(i) by pertussis toxin and inhibition of NADH/NADPH oxidase by diphenylene iodonium also diminished LPA- induced stimulation of PAK. This is the first study to demonstrate that LPA activates PAK. In VSMC, PAK activation by LPA is mediated by Galpha(i) and is dependent on Src, whereas EGF- or PDGF receptor transactivation are not involved. Furthermore, generation of ROS is required for LPA-induced activation of PAK.[1]


  1. Lysophosphatidic acid stimulates p21-activated kinase in vascular smooth muscle cells. Schmitz, U., Thömmes, K., Beier, I., Vetter, H. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2002) [Pubmed]
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