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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Toremifene prevents prostate cancer in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate model.

The chemopreventive efficacy of toremifene, an antiestrogen, was evaluated in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) model. TRAMP mice were segregated into three groups: (a) the low-dose toremifene group (6.6 mg/kg/day); (b) the high-dose toremifene group (33 mg/kg/day); and (c) the control placebo group. Efficacy of treatment was measured by the absence of palpable tumor. To extend these studies using more sensitive techniques, TRAMP mice were then treated with placebo, flutamide (an antiandrogen; 33 mg/kg/day), or toremifene (10 mg/kg/day). Animals from each treatment group were sacrificed at 7, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 weeks of age, and prostate tissues and seminal vesicles were harvested. Tissues from animals (n = 5) in each group were evaluated by wholemount dissections of genitourinary tracts, histology, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot analyses. Blood was pooled per group to measure estradiol and testosterone hormonal levels. Tumors formed at week 17 in the placebo group (n = 10), at week 21 in the high-dose toremifene group (n = 12), and at week 29 in the low-dose toremifene group (n = 12). This represents an increased tumor latency of up to 12 weeks. By 33 weeks, all animals in the placebo group had tumors compared with only 35% of the animals treated with toremifene. Although both flutamide and toremifene decreased tumor incidence compared with the placebo, toremifene was more effective than flutamide. High-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia was observed in animals in the placebo group, but not in animals treated with toremifene. Moreover, toremifene-treated animals had prolonged survival compared with placebo-treated animals. By 33 weeks of age, 100% of the placebo-treated animals had developed palpable tumors and died, whereas 60% of the toremifene-treated animals were tumor free. T antigen levels in the prostate of toremifene-treated animals were similar to those of placebo-treated, age-matched animals. Whereas serum estradiol levels remained unchanged, the total and free testosterone levels were elevated in the toremifene-treated group. Toremifene treatment did not affect androgen receptor levels. Because toremifene prevented prostate cancer in a milieu of elevated blood free testosterone levels with no change in prostate androgen receptor expression, the mechanism of toremifene's chemopreventive activity may be through nonandrogenic pathways, such as estrogen receptor signaling.[1]


  1. Toremifene prevents prostate cancer in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate model. Raghow, S., Hooshdaran, M.Z., Katiyar, S., Steiner, M.S. Cancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
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