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Gene Review

Ar  -  androgen receptor

Mus musculus

Synonyms: AW320017, Androgen receptor, Dihydrotestosterone receptor, Nr3c4, Nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group C member 4, ...
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Disease relevance of Ar


Psychiatry related information on Ar


High impact information on Ar


Chemical compound and disease context of Ar


Biological context of Ar

  • The role of meiosis on AMH expression was investigated in Tfm and in pubertal XXSxrb mice, in which germ cells degenerate before meiosis [15].
  • The androgen receptor (AR) controls several biological functions including prostate cell growth and apoptosis [16].
  • Together, our PM-AR(-/y) mice provide in vivo evidence for the requirement of functional AR in peritubular myoid cells to maintain normal Sertoli cells function and peritubular myoid cell contractility, thus ensuring normal spermatogenesis and sperm output [17].
  • Transgenic AR-luciferase and transgenic AR-lacZ mice harbor a recombinant mouse AR gene, AR(GAL4DBD), which is functionally coupled with a upstream activation sequence-mediated reporter gene (AR activity indicator) [18].
  • AR knockout males displayed a complete androgen insensitivity phenotype [19].

Anatomical context of Ar

  • In neonatal mice, AMH was not inhibited by intratesticular testosterone, due to the lack of expression of the androgen receptor in Sertoli cells [15].
  • Forced activation of either Akt or Erk signaling in an androgen-responsive prostate cancer cell line promotes hormone-independent but AR-dependent growth in culture [1].
  • Oligozoospermia with normal fertility in male mice lacking the androgen receptor in testis peritubular myoid cells [17].
  • We propose that androgen independence emerges by means of epithelial-stromal competition, in which activation of Akt and Erk promotes AR activity in the prostate epithelium while counteracting antagonistic effects of the stroma [1].
  • Immunohistological analysis confirmed that AR and TIF2 coexist in mouse testicular Sertoli cell nuclei under normal conditions [18].

Associations of Ar with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Ar


Regulatory relationships of Ar

  • Finally, transgenic overexpression of PTHrP within the basal epidermis induces AR and tenasin C expression within the ventral dermis, suggesting that ectopic expression of PTHrP can induce the ventral mesenchyme to express mammary mesenchyme markers [26].
  • Next, we examined whether EGF enhanced AR mediated transcriptional activity in the developing tract [27].
  • In summary, the trabecular bone is preserved both by a testicular factor, presumably testosterone acting via AR and by an estrogen-induced activation of ER-alpha [28].
  • The AR gene itself is regulated by AR but not GR in a variety of cell types, including osteoblast-like cells, as shown here [29].
  • Examination of sections of kidneys from Tfm/Y mice before and after testosterone (T) treatment revealed that only the juxtamedullary tubules expressed KAP mRNA and that T increased the level of KAP mRNA in these cells [30].

Other interactions of Ar


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ar


  1. Combinatorial activities of Akt and B-Raf/Erk signaling in a mouse model of androgen-independent prostate cancer. Gao, H., Ouyang, X., Banach-Petrosky, W.A., Gerald, W.L., Shen, M.M., Abate-Shen, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Binding of androgen-receptor complexes to alpha 2u-globulin genes and to the long terminal repeat of mouse mammary tumor virus. Van Dijck, P., Winderickx, J., Heyns, W., Verhoeven, G. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Dihydrotestosterone treatment results in obesity and altered lipid metabolism in orchidectomized mice. Movérare-Skrtic, S., Venken, K., Andersson, N., Lindberg, M.K., Svensson, J., Swanson, C., Vanderschueren, D., Oscarsson, J., Gustafsson, J.A., Ohlsson, C. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.) (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Premature ovarian failure in androgen receptor-deficient mice. Shiina, H., Matsumoto, T., Sato, T., Igarashi, K., Miyamoto, J., Takemasa, S., Sakari, M., Takada, I., Nakamura, T., Metzger, D., Chambon, P., Kanno, J., Yoshikawa, H., Kato, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Infertility with defective spermatogenesis and hypotestosteronemia in male mice lacking the androgen receptor in Sertoli cells. Chang, C., Chen, Y.T., Yeh, S.D., Xu, Q., Wang, R.S., Guillou, F., Lardy, H., Yeh, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Glucocorticoid modulation of androgen receptor nuclear aggregation and cellular toxicity is associated with distinct forms of soluble expanded polyglutamine protein. Welch, W.J., Diamond, M.I. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Effects of steroid hormones on (Na+, K+)-ATPase activity inhibition-induced amnesia on the step-through passive avoidance task in gonadectomized mice. Sato, T., Tanaka, K., Ohnishi, Y., Teramoto, T., Irifune, M., Nishikawa, T. Pharmacol. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Immunohistochemical quantitation of androgen receptor expression using color video image analysis. Kim, D., Gregory, C.W., Smith, G.J., Mohler, J.L. Cytometry. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Stability of an expanded trinucleotide repeat in the androgen receptor gene in transgenic mice. Bingham, P.M., Scott, M.O., Wang, S., McPhaul, M.J., Wilson, E.M., Garbern, J.Y., Merry, D.E., Fischbeck, K.H. Nat. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Regression of mouse mammary gland anlagen in recombinants of Tfm and wild-type tissues: testosterone acts via the mesenchyme. Drews, U., Drews, U. Cell (1977) [Pubmed]
  11. Androgenic induction of growth and differentiation in the rodent uterus involves the modulation of estrogen-regulated genetic pathways. Nantermet, P.V., Masarachia, P., Gentile, M.A., Pennypacker, B., Xu, J., Holder, D., Gerhold, D., Towler, D., Schmidt, A., Kimmel, D.B., Freedman, L.P., Harada, S., Ray, W.J. Endocrinology (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Direct and mediated effects of testosterone: analysis of sex reversed mosaic mice heterozygous for testicular feminization. Drews, U. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. BAF57 governs androgen receptor action and androgen-dependent proliferation through SWI/SNF. Link, K.A., Burd, C.J., Williams, E., Marshall, T., Rosson, G., Henry, E., Weissman, B., Knudsen, K.E. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Toremifene prevents prostate cancer in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate model. Raghow, S., Hooshdaran, M.Z., Katiyar, S., Steiner, M.S. Cancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Hormonal and cellular regulation of Sertoli cell anti-Müllerian hormone production in the postnatal mouse. Al-Attar, L., Noël, K., Dutertre, M., Belville, C., Forest, M.G., Burgoyne, P.S., Josso, N., Rey, R. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitylation and degradation of androgen receptor by Akt require Mdm2 E3 ligase. Lin, H.K., Wang, L., Hu, Y.C., Altuwaijri, S., Chang, C. EMBO J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Oligozoospermia with normal fertility in male mice lacking the androgen receptor in testis peritubular myoid cells. Zhang, C., Yeh, S., Chen, Y.T., Wu, C.C., Chuang, K.H., Lin, H.Y., Wang, R.S., Chang, Y.J., Mendis-Handagama, C., Hu, L., Lardy, H., Chang, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Roles of steroid receptor coactivator (SRC)-1 and transcriptional intermediary factor (TIF) 2 in androgen receptor activity in mice. Ye, X., Han, S.J., Tsai, S.Y., DeMayo, F.J., Xu, J., Tsai, M.J., O'Malley, B.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. A Sertoli cell-selective knockout of the androgen receptor causes spermatogenic arrest in meiosis. De Gendt, K., Swinnen, J.V., Saunders, P.T., Schoonjans, L., Dewerchin, M., Devos, A., Tan, K., Atanassova, N., Claessens, F., Lécureuil, C., Heyns, W., Carmeliet, P., Guillou, F., Sharpe, R.M., Verhoeven, G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. A functional androgen receptor is not sufficient to allow estradiol to protect bone after gonadectomy in estradiol receptor-deficient mice. Sims, N.A., Clément-Lacroix, P., Minet, D., Fraslon-Vanhulle, C., Gaillard-Kelly, M., Resche-Rigon, M., Baron, R. J. Clin. Invest. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Differential effects on bone of estrogen receptor alpha and androgen receptor activation in orchidectomized adult male mice. Movérare, S., Venken, K., Eriksson, A.L., Andersson, N., Skrtic, S., Wergedal, J., Mohan, S., Salmon, P., Bouillon, R., Gustafsson, J.A., Vanderschueren, D., Ohlsson, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Liganded androgen receptor interaction with beta-catenin: nuclear co-localization and modulation of transcriptional activity in neuronal cells. Pawlowski, J.E., Ertel, J.R., Allen, M.P., Xu, M., Butler, C., Wilson, E.M., Wierman, M.E. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Androgen receptor remains critical for cell-cycle progression in androgen-independent CWR22 prostate cancer cells. Yuan, X., Li, T., Wang, H., Zhang, T., Barua, M., Borgesi, R.A., Bubley, G.J., Lu, M.L., Balk, S.P. Am. J. Pathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. The prosence of estrogen receptor in kidneys from normal and androgen-insensitive tfm/y mice. Bullock, L.P., Bardin, C.W. Endocrinology (1975) [Pubmed]
  25. Analysis of growth factor and receptor mRNA levels during development of the rat seminal vesicle and prostate. Thomson, A.A., Foster, B.A., Cunha, G.R. Development (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. Parathyroid hormone-related protein signaling is necessary for sexual dimorphism during embryonic mammary development. Dunbar, M.E., Dann, P.R., Robinson, G.W., Hennighausen, L., Zhang, J.P., Wysolmerski, J.J. Development (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Modulation of androgen receptor (AR)-mediated transcriptional activity by EGF in the developing mouse reproductive tract primary cells. Gupta, C. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Two different pathways for the maintenance of trabecular bone in adult male mice. Lindberg, M.K., Movérare, S., Skrtic, S., Alatalo, S., Halleen, J., Mohan, S., Gustafsson, J.A., Ohlsson, C. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. The androgen receptor (AR) amino-terminus imposes androgen-specific regulation of AR gene expression via an exonic enhancer. Grad, J.M., Lyons, L.S., Robins, D.M., Burnstein, K.L. Endocrinology (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. Detection of spatially regulated gene expression by hybridization histochemistry. Meseguer, A., Catterall, J.F. Rev. Esp. Fisiol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  31. Cell-specific expression of kidney androgen-regulated protein messenger RNA is under multihormonal control. Meseguer, A., Catterall, J.F. Mol. Endocrinol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  32. Vitamin d inhibits the formation of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in nkx3.1; pten mutant mice. Banach-Petrosky, W., Ouyang, X., Gao, H., Nader, K., Ji, Y., Suh, N., Dipaola, R.S., Abate-Shen, C. Clin. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  33. Relative impact of androgen and estrogen receptor activation in the effects of androgens on trabecular and cortical bone in growing male mice: a study in the androgen receptor knockout mouse model. Venken, K., De Gendt, K., Boonen, S., Ophoff, J., Bouillon, R., Swinnen, J.V., Verhoeven, G., Vanderschueren, D. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  34. Expression of Foxa transcription factors in the developing and adult murine prostate. Mirosevich, J., Gao, N., Matusik, R.J. Prostate (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. Paracrine regulation of apoptosis by steroid hormones in the male and female reproductive system. Kurita, T., Wang, Y.Z., Donjacour, A.A., Zhao, C., Lydon, J.P., O'Malley, B.W., Isaacs, J.T., Dahiya, R., Cunha, G.R. Cell Death Differ. (2001) [Pubmed]
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