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Chemical Compound Review

Drogenil     2-methyl-N-[4-nitro-3- (trifluoromethyl)phe...

Synonyms: Eulexine, FlutaGRY, Flutamin, Flutexin, Prostica, ...
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Disease relevance of Eulexin


Psychiatry related information on Eulexin


High impact information on Eulexin

  • All 603 men received leuprolide, an analogue of gonadotropin-releasing hormone that inhibits the release of gonadotropins, in combination with either placebo or flutamide, a nonsteroidal antiandrogen that inhibits the binding of androgens to the cell nucleus [10].
  • Females receiving late gestation flutamide showed masculinized infant vocalizations and defeminized interest in infants [11].
  • IMPLICATIONS: On the basis of these and additional data, we hypothesize that prolonged exposure to flutamide results in the selective proliferation of cancer cells containing a mutant androgen receptor that aberrantly recognizes flutamide metabolites and nonandrogenic steroids as androgenic stimuli [12].
  • Factors associated with response included prolonged flutamide pretreatment, a markedly elevated pretreatment PSA, and the absence of soft-tissue disease [12].
  • METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with metastatic prostate cancer were treated with simultaneous flutamide withdrawal and aminoglutethimide (250 mg given orally four times daily) [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of Eulexin


Biological context of Eulexin


Anatomical context of Eulexin


Associations of Eulexin with other chemical compounds

  • The inhibitory effect of testosterone in female rats was blocked by the antiandrogen flutamide, suggesting an androgen receptor-dependent mechanism [25].
  • The cells, isolated enzymatically, were cultured in Coon's modified Ham's F-12 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, 15 mM HEPES buffer, fibronectin, and antibiotics [26].
  • Mouse neuroblastoma Neuro-2A cells have been cultured in a chemically defined serum-free medium consisting of a 1:1 mixture of Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium and Ham's F-12 medium, supplemented with 30 nM selenite and 10 micrograms of transferrin per ml [27].
  • In contrast, the single mutant AR found among 17 patients treated with androgen ablation monotherapy was not flutamide stimulated [28].
  • Our data strongly support the hypothesis that AR mutation is one possible mechanism of the AWS and suggest that flutamide might be effective as a second-line therapy for refractory PC previously treated with bicalutamide [29].

Gene context of Eulexin

  • Effect of the multidrug resistance protein on the transport of the antiandrogen flutamide [30].
  • In this study, we sought to determine whether the cellular accumulation of the antiandrogen flutamide, a drug commonly used in the treatment of prostate cancer, is affected by MRP1 expression [30].
  • Prostate cancers respond to treatments that suppress androgen receptor (AR) function, with bicalutamide, flutamide, and cyproterone acetate (CPA) being AR antagonists in clinical use [31].
  • This induction was not seen either when LNCaP cells were treated with flutamide or conditioned medium were pretreated with antibody to the epidermal growth factor (EGF) [32].
  • Previous studies have also shown that administration of flutamide up-regulated estrogen receptor (ER) expression in males following T-H [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Eulexin

  • CONCLUSIONS: The addition of flutamide to bilateral orchiectomy does not result in a clinically meaningful improvement in survival among patients with metastatic prostate cancer [1].
  • As compared with the 300 patients receiving leuprolide and placebo, the 303 patients randomly assigned to receive leuprolide and flutamide had a longer progression-free survival (16.5 vs. 13.9 months; P = 0.039) and an increase in the median length of survival (35.6 vs. 28.3 months; P = 0.035) [10].
  • METHODS: Patients (n = 739) with stage M1 (bone or soft tissue metastasis) prostate cancer were enrolled in a QOL protocol that was a companion to Southwest Oncology Group INT-0105, a randomized double-blind trial comparing treatment with bilateral orchiectomy (surgical castration) plus either flutamide or placebo [34].
  • Fourteen patients had resolution of abnormal liver function test results after discontinuing or decreasing the dose of flutamide, but five patients died of progressive liver disease [4].
  • However, DES produced significantly longer time to treatment failure (26.4 v 9.7 months, P = .016) and longer survival than flutamide (43.2 v 28.5 months, P = .040) [35].


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  2. Treatment of prostate cancer with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists. Labrie, F., Dupont, A., Bélanger, A., St-Arnaud, R., Giguère, M., Lacourcière, Y., Emond, J., Monfette, G. Endocr. Rev. (1986) [Pubmed]
  3. Fulminant liver failure associated with flutamide therapy for hirsutism. Andrade, R.J., Lucena, M.I., Fernández, M.C., Suárez, F., Montero, J.L., Fraga, E., Hidalgo, F. Lancet (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Fatal and nonfatal hepatotoxicity associated with flutamide. Wysowski, D.K., Freiman, J.P., Tourtelot, J.B., Horton, M.L. Ann. Intern. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Efficacious chemoprevention of primary prostate cancer by flutamide in an autochthonous transgenic model. Raghow, S., Kuliyev, E., Steakley, M., Greenberg, N., Steiner, M.S. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Open trial of flutamide for treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Altemus, M., Greenberg, B.D., Keuler, D., Jacobson, K.R., Murphy, D.L. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Steroid hormones and Tourette's syndrome: early experience with antiandrogen therapy. Peterson, B.S., Leckman, J.F., Scahill, L., Naftolin, F., Keefe, D., Charest, N.J., King, R.A., Hardin, M.T., Cohen, D.J. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Testosterone, antiandrogen, and alloparental behavior in bobwhite quail foster fathers. Vleck, C.M., Dobrott, S.J. Hormones and behavior. (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Flutamide administration at 500 mg daily has similar effects on serum testosterone to 750 mg daily. Murphy, J.C., Srinivas, S., Terris, M.K. J. Androl. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. A controlled trial of leuprolide with and without flutamide in prostatic carcinoma. Crawford, E.D., Eisenberger, M.A., McLeod, D.G., Spaulding, J.T., Benson, R., Dorr, F.A., Blumenstein, B.A., Davis, M.A., Goodman, P.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Hormonal influences on sexually differentiated behavior in nonhuman primates. Wallen, K. Frontiers in neuroendocrinology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Surprising activity of flutamide withdrawal, when combined with aminoglutethimide, in treatment of "hormone-refractory" prostate cancer. Sartor, O., Cooper, M., Weinberger, M., Headlee, D., Thibault, A., Tompkins, A., Steinberg, S., Figg, W.D., Linehan, W.M., Myers, C.E. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Bicalutamide monotherapy versus flutamide plus goserelin in prostate cancer patients: results of an Italian Prostate Cancer Project study. Boccardo, F., Rubagotti, A., Barichello, M., Battaglia, M., Carmignani, G., Comeri, G., Conti, G., Cruciani, G., Dammino, S., Delliponti, U., Ditonno, P., Ferraris, V., Lilliu, S., Montefiore, F., Portoghese, F., Spano, G. J. Clin. Oncol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Phase II trial of suramin, leuprolide, and flutamide in previously untreated metastatic prostate cancer. Dawson, N.A., Figg, W.D., Cooper, M.R., Sartor, O., Bergan, R.C., Senderowicz, A.M., Steinberg, S.M., Tompkins, A., Weinberger, B., Sausville, E.A., Reed, E., Myers, C.E. J. Clin. Oncol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Flutamide versus prednisone in patients with prostate cancer symptomatically progressing after androgen-ablative therapy: a phase III study of the European organization for research and treatment of cancer genitourinary group. Fosså, S.D., Slee, P.H., Brausi, M., Horenblas, S., Hall, R.R., Hetherington, J.W., Aaronson, N., de Prijck L, n.u.l.l., Collette, L. J. Clin. Oncol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Androgen-dependent apoptosis in male germ cells is regulated through the proto-oncoprotein Cbl. El Chami, N., Ikhlef, F., Kaszas, K., Yakoub, S., Tabone, E., Siddeek, B., Cunha, S., Beaudoin, C., Morel, L., Benahmed, M., Régnier, D.C. J. Cell Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. The low gonadotropin-independent constitutive production of testicular testosterone is sufficient to maintain spermatogenesis. Zhang, F.P., Pakarainen, T., Poutanen, M., Toppari, J., Huhtaniemi, I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Simulation of the initial stage of endochondral ossification: in vitro sequential culture of growth cartilage cells and bone marrow cells. Suzuki, F., Takase, T., Takigawa, M., Uchida, A., Shimomura, Y. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  19. Induction of human arylamine N-acetyltransferase type I by androgens in human prostate cancer cells. Butcher, N.J., Tetlow, N.L., Cheung, C., Broadhurst, G.M., Minchin, R.F. Cancer Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  20. Flutamide Attenuates Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Production and Hepatic Injury Following Trauma-Hemorrhage via Estrogen Receptor-related Pathway. Shimizu, T., Yu, H.P., Hsieh, Y.C., Choudhry, M.A., Suzuki, T., Bland, K.I., Chaudry, I.H. Ann. Surg. (2007) [Pubmed]
  21. Synthesis of cartilage matrix by mammalian chondrocytes in vitro. I. Isolation, culture characteristics, and morphology. Kuettner, K.E., Pauli, B.U., Gall, G., Memoli, V.A., Schenk, R.K. J. Cell Biol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  22. Thyroid hormone, insulin, and glucocorticoids are sufficient to support chondrocyte differentiation to hypertrophy: a serum-free analysis. Quarto, R., Campanile, G., Cancedda, R., Dozin, B. J. Cell Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. Basal lamina formation on thyroid epithelia in separated follicles in suspension culture. Garbi, C., Wollman, S.H. J. Cell Biol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  24. Cloned endothelial cells from fetal bovine bone. Streeten, E.A., Ornberg, R., Curcio, F., Sakaguchi, K., Marx, S., Aurbach, G.D., Brandi, M.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  25. Androgen control of cytosol progesterone receptor levels in the MT-W9B transplantable mammary tumor in the rat. Ip, M.M., Milholland, R.J., Kim, U., Rosen, F. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1982) [Pubmed]
  26. Cell culture of rat gastric fundic mucosa. Terano, A., Ivey, K.J., Stachura, J., Sekhon, S., Hosojima, H., McKenzie, W.N., Krause, W.J., Wyche, J.H. Gastroenterology (1982) [Pubmed]
  27. Neuroblastoma cells produce transforming growth factors during exponential growth in a defined hormone-free medium. van Zoelen, E.J., Twardzik, D.R., van Oostwaard, T.M., van der Saag, P.T., de Laat, S.W., Todaro, G.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  28. Selection for androgen receptor mutations in prostate cancers treated with androgen antagonist. Taplin, M.E., Bubley, G.J., Ko, Y.J., Small, E.J., Upton, M., Rajeshkumar, B., Balk, S.P. Cancer Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. Novel mutations of androgen receptor: a possible mechanism of bicalutamide withdrawal syndrome. Hara, T., Miyazaki, J., Araki, H., Yamaoka, M., Kanzaki, N., Kusaka, M., Miyamoto, M. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Effect of the multidrug resistance protein on the transport of the antiandrogen flutamide. Grzywacz, M.J., Yang, J.M., Hait, W.N. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Recruitment of beta-catenin by wild-type or mutant androgen receptors correlates with ligand-stimulated growth of prostate cancer cells. Masiello, D., Chen, S.Y., Xu, Y., Verhoeven, M.C., Choi, E., Hollenberg, A.N., Balk, S.P. Mol. Endocrinol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. Androgens stimulate hypoxia-inducible factor 1 activation via autocrine loop of tyrosine kinase receptor/phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/protein kinase B in prostate cancer cells. Mabjeesh, N.J., Willard, M.T., Frederickson, C.E., Zhong, H., Simons, J.W. Clin. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. Mechanism of the salutary effects of flutamide on intestinal myeloperoxidase activity following trauma-hemorrhage: up-regulation of estrogen receptor-{beta}-dependent HO-1. Yu, H.P., Choudhry, M.A., Shimizu, T., Hsieh, Y.C., Schwacha, M.G., Yang, S., Chaudry, I.H. J. Leukoc. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  34. Quality of life in advanced prostate cancer: results of a randomized therapeutic trial. Moinpour, C.M., Savage, M.J., Troxel, A., Lovato, L.C., Eisenberger, M., Veith, R.W., Higgins, B., Skeel, R., Yee, M., Blumenstein, B.A., Crawford, E.D., Meyskens, F.L. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1998) [Pubmed]
  35. Double-blind, randomized study of primary hormonal treatment of stage D2 prostate carcinoma: flutamide versus diethylstilbestrol. Chang, A., Yeap, B., Davis, T., Blum, R., Hahn, R., Khanna, O., Fisher, H., Rosenthal, J., Witte, R., Schinella, R., Trump, D. J. Clin. Oncol. (1996) [Pubmed]
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