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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Role of protein kinase C in the phosphorylation of CD33 (Siglec-3) and its effect on lectin activity.

CD33 (Siglec-3) is a marker of myeloid progenitor cells, mature myeloid cells, and most myeloid leukemias. Although its biologic role remains unknown, it has been demonstrated to function as a sialic acid-specific lectin and a cell adhesion molecule. Many of the Siglecs (including CD33) have been reported to be tyrosine phosphorylated in the cytosolic tails under specific stimulation conditions. Here we report that CD33 is also a serine/threonine phosphoprotein, containing at least 2 sites of serine phosphorylation in its cytoplasmic domain, catalyzed by protein kinase C (PKC). Phosphorylation could be augmented by exposure to the protein kinase-activating cytokines interleukin 3, erythropoietin, or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, in a cytokine-dependent cell line, TF-1. The CD33 cytoplasmic tail was phosphorylated by PKC in vitro, in a Ca(++)/lipid-dependent manner. CHOK1 cells stably expressing CD33 with cytoplasmic tails of various length also showed phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-dependent phosphorylation of CD33. Inhibition of CD33 phosphorylation with pharmacologic agents resulted in an increase of sialic acid-dependent rosette formation. Furthermore, the occupancy of the lectin site affected its basal level of phosphorylation. Rosette formation by COS cells expressing a form of CD33 lacking its cytoplasmic domain was not affected by these same agents. These data indicate that CD33 is a phosphoprotein, that its phosphorylation may be controlled by PKC downstream of cytokine stimulation, and that its phosphorylation is cross-regulated with its lectin activity. Notably, although this is the first example of serine/threonine phosphorylation in the subfamily of CD33-like Siglecs, some of the other members also have putative target sites in their cytoplasmic tails.[1]


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