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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Transcriptional regulation of the cyclooxygenase-2 gene changes from protein kinase (PK) A- to PKC-dependence after luteinization of granulosa cells.

This study was designed to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s) mediating cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) regulation during differentiation of the granulosa cell. The 5' flanking sequence of the Cox-2 gene was linked to a vector with a luciferase reporter gene, and this vector was transfected into freshly isolated bovine granulosa cells or granulosa cells after culture with or without forskolin to induce luteinization in vitro. The Cox-2 promoter was inducible by 8-bromo cAMP but not by phorbol esters in fresh granulosa cells, and maximal expression by cAMP was delayed until 48 h after treatment. In contrast, after luteinization of granulosa cells by 8-day treatment with forskolin, the Cox-2 promoter was immediately inducible by phorbol esters but not by cAMP. In granulosa cells cultured for 8 days without forskolin, the Cox-2 promoter continued to be inducible only by cAMP and not by phorbol esters. Unexpectedly, no delay was observed in the induction of Cox-2 by cAMP in granulosa cells that were cultured without forskolin, compared with an approximately 1 day delay in Cox-2 induction by cAMP in fresh granulosa cells. Myristoylated protein kinase (PK) A and PKC inhibitory peptides were utilized to further confirm the PKA- or PKC-dependence of Cox-2 induction. Time-course experiments showed that only 2 days of forskolin treatment could induce PKC-responsiveness of the Cox-2 promoter, although maximal responsiveness was not observed until 10 days of luteinization. Promoter activity was also analyzed in a series of deletion mutants as well as site-directed mutants of C/EBP, CRE, and E-box. A 282-base pair sequence in the Cox-2 5' flanking region maintained full inducibility by PKA in granulosa cells and by PKC in luteinized granulosa cells. The E-box element was found to be the critical regulatory element for Cox-2 induction by either PKA in granulosa cells or by PKC in luteinized granulosa cells. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays were performed on nuclear extracts from fresh or luteinized granulosa cells. Upstream stimulatory factor (USF)-1 and USF-2 bound to the E-box of the Cox-2 gene, and binding was similar for nuclear extracts from fresh, cultured, or luteinized granulosa cells. Thus, although luteinization changes transcriptional regulation of Cox-2 from PKA- to PKC-dependence, the crucial role of the E-box element in this transcriptional activation is conserved.[1]


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