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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Chromosome aberration assays for the study of cyclophosphamide and Bacillus thuringiensis in Oxya chinensis (Orthoptera: Acrididae).

Chromosome aberrations induced by an anti-neoplastic drug, cyclophosphamide (CP) and a bioinsecticide, Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.) were examined using grasshoppers as an animal model, with injection as the route of exposure. Oxya chinensis (Thunberg), having a small number (2n male symbol =23) of large-sized chromosomes in males, was used for this purpose. The fifth instar nymphs were treated with various concentrations of CP (2, 5 and 10 mg/ml) and B.t. (0.55, 1.83 and 5.50 IU/ml) by injection into the abdomen, using physiological saline and distilled water as negative controls, respectively. The chromosomal preparations were made from the spermatogonia of the specimen testis at different intervals after dosing (24 and 48 h). The effect of the high dose of CP (10 mg/ml) in O. chinensis was also analyzed at the 42-h time point. The chromosome aberrations observed were mainly chromatid and chromosome breaks. CP induced a dose- and time-dependents increase in the number of chromosome aberrations (CAs) per cell and in the percentage of aberrant cells. The strongest effect was seen when grasshoppers were injected with the highest dose and cells were analyzed at the 48-h time point. The results show that CP induced a significant increase in the frequency of CAs in testicular cells of O. chinensis with the three doses employed, compared to the negative control. Our results suggest that there exists in the grasshopper an enzyme system analogous to liver-S9 fraction, and that CP may be used as a positive control in genotoxicity test in this species. In addition, the evaluation of the chromosome aberrations induced by B.t. in the grasshoppers' testicular cells showed that B.t. may induce chromosome aberrations, mainly chromatid and chromosome breaks, in spermatogonia. By statistical analysis, B.t. showed significant dose-effect relationships and it may be mutagenic in this species. Recent research has focused on the development of biological insecticides to protect cereal crops against damage by insect species, such as beetles and grasshoppers. The present studies may contribute to our knowledge of entomological genotoxicity in grasshoppers and provide reference for the research on the mechanism of B.t. toxicity.[1]


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