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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

15-Deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 inhibits the expression of proinflammatory genes in human blood monocytes via a PPAR-gamma-independent mechanism.

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) has been implicated in inhibition of the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and inducible enzymes such as cyclooxygenase-2 ( COX-2). Using real-time RT-PCR the present study investigates the impact of two PPAR-gamma agonists, 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)) and ciglitazone, on the expression of several proinflammatory genes in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human blood monocytes. Stimulation of cells with LPS resulted in a profound induction of the expression of COX-2, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Treatment of cells with 15d-PGJ(2) (10 microM) was associated with a nearly complete inhibition of the expression of all genes that remained unaltered in the presence of the PPAR-gamma antagonist bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE; 100 microM). By contrast, treatment of cells with another potent PPAR-gamma agonist, ciglitazone (50 microM), and the PPAR-alpha agonist WY-14,643 (100 microM) did not suppress LPS-induced expression of the investigated genes. Stimulation of monocytes with LPS resulted in an 88% inhibition of PPAR-gamma mRNA expression that was fully restored by 15d-PGJ(2) but only to a partial extent by ciglitazone and WY-14,643. Again, BADGE did not alter the effect of 15d-PGJ(2). Collectively, our results show that alterations of gene expression by 15d-PGJ(2) in LPS-stimulated human blood monocytes are mediated by PPAR-gamma-independent mechanisms. Moreover, it is concluded that both inhibition of proinflammatory gene expression and restoration of LPS-induced decrease of PPAR-gamma expression may contribute to the biological action of 15d-PGJ(2).[1]


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