The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Differential regulation of beta-arrestin 1 and beta-arrestin 2 gene expression in rat brain by morphine.

Beta-arrestins are a family of regulatory and scaffold proteins functioning in signal transduction of G protein-coupled receptors including opioid receptors. Upon agonist stimulation, beta-arrestins bind to opioid receptors phosphorylated by G protein-coupled receptor kinases and promote receptor internalization and desensitization. Studies indicated that beta-arrestins are required in the development of morphine tolerance in mice. In the current study, we investigated the potential regulatory effects of morphine administration on beta-arrestin 1 and beta-arrestin 2 mRNA levels in different brain regions in rat using in situ hybridization method. Our results showed that the acute morphine administration (10 mg/kg) resulted in approximately 30% reduction in both beta-arrestin 1 and beta-arrestin 2 mRNA levels in hippocampus while the chronic morphine treatment (10 mg/kg, b.i.d., for 9 days) caused no significant change in level of either beta-arrestin mRNA. In locus coeruleus, both acute and chronic morphine treatments resulted in significant decreases (over 50%) in beta-arrestin 1 mRNA level but failed to induce any change in the level of beta-arrestin 2 gene expression. The acute morphine administration had no significant effect on beta-arrestin 1 or beta-arrestin 2 mRNA level in periaqueductal gray and cerebral cortex. However, after chronic morphine treatment, beta-arrestin 2 mRNA level decreased by 40% in periaqueductal gray and increased by 25% in cerebral cortex, in strong contrast to the unchanged beta-arrestin 1 mRNA level in these two brain regions. Furthermore, spontaneous or naloxone-precipitated withdrawal of morphine that did not affect the level of beta-arrestin 1 mRNA resulted in an aberrant increase (100% over control) in beta-arrestin 2 mRNA level in hippocampus. Our results thus demonstrated for the first time that opiate administration regulates level of beta-arrestin mRNAs in brain and the expression of beta-arrestin 1 and beta-arrestin 2 subtypes is differentially regulated in locus coeruleus, periaqueductal gray, and cerebral cortex by morphine. These data suggest that beta-arrestin 1 and beta-arrestin 2 may play different roles in the development of opioid tolerance and dependence.[1]


  1. Differential regulation of beta-arrestin 1 and beta-arrestin 2 gene expression in rat brain by morphine. Fan, X.L., Zhang, J.S., Zhang, X.Q., Yue, W., Ma, L. Neuroscience (2003) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities