The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Rye bread in the diet of pigs enhances the formation of enterolactone and increases its levels in plasma, urine and feces.

To obtain new insight into the quantitative and qualitative metabolism of rye and wheat lignans, we performed three series of experiments with catheterized pigs. Two diets with similar levels of dietary fiber and macronutrients but with contrasting levels of plant lignans (isolariciresinol, lariciresinol, matairesinol, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol and syringaresinol) were prepared from rye (high in lignans) and wheat (low in lignans) soft and crisp breads. In two series of experiments we quantified the uptake from the gut of enterolactone in four pigs fitted with catheters in the portal vein and mesenteric artery and with an ultrasonic flow probe attached to the portal vein to monitor the blood flow. In a third study with six pigs, we quantified the bioavailability of the plant lignans that can be converted to enterolactone (lariciresinol, matairesinol, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol and syringaresinol) and the concentration in the peripheral blood. Plant and mammalian lignans in diets and stool were analyzed by isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and enterolactone in plasma and urine determined by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay. There was a significantly higher formation of enterolactone in pigs fed the rye diet, and higher fecal and urinary excretion and circulating levels of mammalian lignans than in pigs fed the wheat diet. The conversion of mammalian lignan precursors to enterolactone was 48% with the wheat diet and 60% with the rye diet. Mammalian lignans are absorbed by passive diffusion from the large intestine and a substantial fraction of the absorbed mammalian lignans undergoes enterohepatic circulation, resulting in low diurnal variation in plasma levels of enterolactone.[1]


  1. Rye bread in the diet of pigs enhances the formation of enterolactone and increases its levels in plasma, urine and feces. Bach Knudsen, K.E., Serena, A., Kjaer, A.K., Tetens, I., Heinonen, S.M., Nurmi, T., Adlercreutz, H. J. Nutr. (2003) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities