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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Central administration of the neurotensin receptor antagonist SR48692 attenuates vacuous chewing movements in a rodent model of tardive dyskinesia.

Tardive dyskinesia is a movement disorder that develops in 20-30% of patients treated with chronic neuroleptics. Whilst the pathogenesis of tardive dyskinesia remains unclear, altered expression of neuropeptides in the basal ganglia has been implicated in its emergence. The peptide neurotensin is expressed in both dopamine D1 receptor-bearing neurons of the direct striatonigral pathway and dopamine D2 receptor-bearing neurons of the indirect striatopallidal pathway. Increased levels of striatal neurotensin messenger RNA (mRNA) are reported following chronic neuroleptic therapy. Chronic treatment with the typical antipsychotic haloperidol elicits neurotensin immunoreactivity in a large number of striatopallidal and a modest number of striatonigral projection neurons, whilst treatment with the potent dopamine releaser, methamphetamine, induces intense neurotensin immunoreactivity in striatonigral projection neurons. In order to determine whether increased levels of striatal neurotensin mRNA in the direct striatonigral or the indirect striatopallidal pathway play a more influential role in the development of tardive dyskinesia, we explored the effects of a specific neurotensin antagonist in a rodent model (vacuous chewing movements [VCMs] induced by chronic neuroleptics). Three groups of animals received injections of fluphenazine decanoate (25 mg/kg) or its vehicle sesame oil every 3 weeks for at least 18 weeks. They were then surgically implanted with bilateral guide cannulae aimed at the striatum, the substantia nigra pars reticulata, or the globus pallidus respectively. After recovery, animals were infused with 2-[(1-(7-chloro-4-quinolinyl)-5-(2,6-imethoxyphenyl)pyrazol-3-yl)carbonylamino]tricyclo( acid (SR48692; 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0 nmol/microl), or its vehicle (10% dimethyl sulfoxide [DMSO] in saline) and observed for 60 min. Intra-striatal, intra-nigral or intra-pallidal infusion of SR48692 attenuated neuroleptic-induced VCMs. These findings lend further support to a role for neurotensin in the development of VCMs but do not clarify which pathway plays a more important role. Thus, treatments that reduce or prevent the effects of increased neurotensin expression and release may be useful in the management of tardive dyskinesia.[1]


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