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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

A functional variant in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma2 promoter is associated with predictors of obesity and type 2 diabetes in Pima Indians.

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma)-2 is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily that is expressed predominantly in adipocytes and is thought to have a role in energy homeostasis, adipogenesis, and insulin sensitivity. A functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that predicts a proline to alanine substitution (Pro12Ala) within the coding region of this gene has previously been associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes in several populations. In this study, we identified several novel SNPs in the promoter region of PPARgamma2 and genotyped them, along with the previously identified Pro12Ala SNP. In 241 nondiabetic Pima subjects, the Pro12Ala was associated with whole-body insulin action (P = 0.05), hepatic insulin action (P = 0.03), and fasting plasma insulin concentrations (P = 0.01). One of the promoter SNPs positioned within a putative E2 box was in high linkage disequilibrium (/D'/ = 0.98) with the Pro12Ala. This promoter SNP was similarly associated with whole-body insulin action (P = 0.04) and hepatic insulin action (P = 0.05), but not fasting plasma insulin concentrations. Functional studies in transfected 3T3-L1 cells demonstrated that this single base substitution in the putative E2 box significantly altered transcriptional activity from a luciferase reporter construct. These data indicate that this promoter SNP, via its effect on PPARgamma2 expression, may also have functional consequences on PPARgamma2-activated pathways, and perhaps both the promoter SNP and the Pro12Ala contribute to PPARgamma2-related phenotypes.[1]


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