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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Vasodilator agents protect against indinavir nephrotoxicity.

Indinavir (IDV) is a protease inhibitor widely used in AIDS treatment. A sustained elevation of creatinine was identified in IDV-treated patients. We have previously demonstrated that IDV causes renal vasoconstriction in rats. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanism of IDV-induced vasoconstriction and the effect that the vasodilator agents L-arginine (LA), nifedipine (NF), as well as magnesium supplementation (Mg), have on IDV-induced nephrotoxicity. Male Wistar rats were kept on fast overnight and given free access to water. IDV (80 mg/kg BW) and NF (3 mg/kg BW) were given by gavage for 15 days. LA (1.5%) and MgCl2 x 6H2O (1%) were added to drinking water. Six groups were studied: Control (n=6): normal rats treated with vehicle, a 0.05 M citric acid solution; IDV (n=7): IDV-treated rats; IDV+LA (n=6): IDV- and LA-treated rats; IDV+NF (n=7): IDV- and NF-treated rats; IDV+Mg (n=7): IDV- and MgCl2-treated rats; IDV+Mg+L-NAME (n=9): IDV- and MgCl2-treated rats, supplemented with L-NAME (2.5 mg/l in drinking water). Clearance studies and evaluations of urinary nitrite (NO2) excretion were performed on day 16. No changes in blood pressure were observed. NO2 excretion decreased in IDV-treated rats. LA and NF protected against IDV effects, improving GFR (IDV+LA, 1.95 +/- 0.10; IDV+NF, 1.94 +/- 0.07 vs IDV, 1.15 +/- 0.07 ml/min, P<0.001) and RBF (IDV+LA, 7.83 +/- 0.09; IDV+NF, 7.63 +/- 0.14 vs IDV, 6.17 +/- 0.25 ml/min, P<0.001). These results suggest that IDV-induced vasoconstriction is mediated by NO and Ca2+ channels. Magnesium also ameliorated GFR and RBF in IDV-treated rats (GFR IDV+Mg, 1.77 +/- 0.08 ml/min, P<0.001; RBF IDV+Mg, 7.35 +/- 0.158 ml/min, P<0.001). Magnesium protection is not NO-mediated since it was not blocked by L-NAME. In conclusion, LA, NF and Mg protect against IDV-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. This study may have potential clinical implications for prevention of IDV-induced nephrotoxicity.[1]


  1. Vasodilator agents protect against indinavir nephrotoxicity. de Araujo, M., Seguro, A.C. Antivir. Ther. (Lond.) (2003) [Pubmed]
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