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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

AC1NSEHA     magnesium dichloride

Synonyms: ACMC-1BE2K, CHEBI:6636, AG-D-96326, AG-H-12109, ANW-56406, ...
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Disease relevance of MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE

  • Addition of Mg-ATP (magnesium chloride-treated ATP), Mg-ADP, or Mg-AMP (five aliquots of 200 nmol/ml added 10 min apart) during anoxia causes complete recovery of ATP levels, and respiratory and transport function after 40 min of reox [1].
  • (e) In WR-2721-treated intact rats, prevention of hypomagnesemia by infusing magnesium chloride did not reduce hypocalcemia [2].
  • DNA fragments deposited on mica and imaged in Hepes/MgCl2 are shown before and after Escherichia coli RNA polymerase holoenzyme is injected in the SFM liquid chamber [3].
  • Single-stranded RNA from the bacteriophage MS2 has been analyzed in the electron microscope in the presence of various concentrations of MgCl2 [4].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous magnesium chloride administration reduces the frequency of ventricular arrhythmia in patients with symptomatic heart failure [5].

Psychiatry related information on MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE

  • Selective pressure was increased by decreasing MgCl2 and spermidine concentrations, and reducing reaction time [6].
  • Immunoaffinity-purified paired helical filaments (PHFs) from Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain homogenates contain an associated protein kinase activity that is able to induce the phosphorylation of PHF proteins on addition of exogenous MgCl2 and ATP [7].

High impact information on MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE

  • After ultracentrifugation and preliminary fractionation procedures, the detergent was removed from the soluble membranes by Bio-Beads SM-2 and dialysis against 5 millimolar magnesium chloride [8].
  • In vitro, bI5 RNA self-splices efficiently only at high MgCl2 concentrations (50 mM); at 5 mM MgCl2, efficient splicing requires purified CBP2 protein [9].
  • Conversely, when allowed to reassemble in vitro in the presence of 5 mM MgCl2, the reassembled fimbriae lost their reactivity with antibodies AA8 and GG1 but regained reactivity with antibody CD3 [10].
  • In contrast, magnesium absorption from commercially available enteric-coated magnesium chloride was much less than from magnesium acetate, suggesting that enteric coating can impair magnesium bioavailability [11].
  • We show (a) that the triphenylethylene-binding sites of PKC are located in the catalytic domain of the enzyme, (b) that MgATP (i.e., 10 mM MgCl2 plus 1 mM ATP) competes with the triphenylethylenes for binding sites on PKC, and (c) that triphenylethylenes are competitive inhibitors of PKC with respect to MgATP [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE

  • The optimum incorporation of dTMP into the (rA)n(dT)10 template with HIV reverse transcriptase required 6 mM MgCl2 and 80 mM KCl [13].
  • The RNase III-catalyzed cleavage of a 47 nucleotide substrate (R1.1 RNA), based on the bacteriophage T7 R1.1 processing signal, follows substrate saturation kinetics, with a Km of 0.26 microM, and kcat of 7.7 min.-1 (37 degrees C, in buffer containing 250 mM potassium glutamate and 10 mM MgCl2) [14].
  • Both M. hominis and M. salivarium were competent after treatment with MgCl2 and CaCl2, while Mycoplasma orale type 2 was inactivated [15].
  • BchD, present largely as an insoluble protein in E. coli, was purified in 6 M urea and refolded by addition of BchI, MgCl2 and ATP, yielding highly active protein [16].
  • In both nutrient broth (a low mu medium) and Mueller-Hinton broth (a relatively high mu medium), protection of E. coli from dihydrostreptomycin or gentamicin action by MgCl2, NaCl, or Na2SO4 was attributed to ionic strength alone [17].

Biological context of MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE

  • The distribution of carcinogen within the genome was measured after fractionation of chromatin by DNase II digestion followed by selective MgCl2 precipitation [18].
  • The deletion of the enhancer results in a strong decrease of transcription, with spermidine and MgCl2 being critical variables in the transcription reactions [19].
  • Mechanism of action of Acanthamoeba profilin: demonstration of actin species specificity and regulation by micromolar concentrations of MgCl2 [20].
  • Furthermore, incubation of purified rFKBP-52 with [gamma-32P]ATP and MgCl2 resulted in the phosphorylation of a 59-kDa nuclear protein [21].
  • An in vitro adenovirus DNA replication system catalyzed the formation of a covalent complex between an 80,000-dalton protein and 5'-dCMP in the presence of [alpha-32P-dCTP, MgCl2, ATP, and adenovirus (Ad) DNA with a protein covalently bound to the 5' end of each strand (Ad DNA-prot) [22].

Anatomical context of MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE

  • The sequential addition of cystamine, MgCl2 and pyridoxal phosphate increased the residual 4MU-alpha-Id activities in subtype extracts up to about 35% of normal mean fibroblast activity [23].
  • Magnesium absorption was studied in the normal human jejunum and ileum by in vivo intestinal perfusion, using test solutions containing from 0 to 20 mM Mg (as MgCl2) [24].
  • The effect of 12.5 mM magnesium chloride on sodium transport in the human ileum in vivo was investigated using segmental perfusion [25].
  • Under physiological conditions (100 mM KCl, 1 mM MgCl2) and excess ATP (0.5 mM), depolymerization of the newly assembled actin filaments at the nonpreferred end over an 8-h period was 0.024 micron/h. Thus, even after 8 h, 63% of the bundles retained significant growth on their nonpreferred ends, the average length being 0.21 micron +/- 0.04 [26].
  • In isolated brush borders exposed to 5 mM MgCl2, ferritin-antimyosin was also concentrated in the terminal web associated with 10-15-nm filaments [27].

Associations of MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE with other chemical compounds

  • Serum gastrin also rose after MgCl2, AlCl3, and CaCl2 with a pH of 2, when intragastric pH was not significantly altered [28].
  • However, both the rate and extent of BR decay increased with concentrations of Ca2+ above 0.2-0.5 muM as assayed using Ca-EGTA buffers (0.2 mM EGTA, 0.5 mM MgCl2, 50 mM PIPES, pH 6.8, plus various amounts of CaCl2) [29].
  • Maximum incorporation was observed at 31 degrees C in the presence of MgCl2, all four ribonucleoside triphosphates, beta-mercaptoethanol, and glycine sodium hydroxide buffer at pH 9 [30].
  • Barbed end assembly occurred over a range of actin monomer concentrations (0.2-6 microM) in solutions containing 75 mM KCl, 5 mM MgCl2, 10 mM Imidazole, pH 7.2, and 2 microM CB [31].
  • Polylysine was found to induce polymerization of muscle actin in a low ionic strength buffer containing 0.4 mM MgCl2 [32].


  • The XPV polymerase activity was dependent on MgCl2, sensitive to NEM, moderately sensitive to KCl, resistant to both aphidicolin and ddTTP, and not stimulated by PCNA [33].
  • DNA unwinding by RP-A was found to be sensitive to MgCl2, ATP, heating and freezing/thawing [34].
  • For example, vimentin fibers formed in 0.7 mM phosphate (pH 7.5), 2.5 mM MgCl2, yield a significantly increased number of molecules per cross-section (56 and 84) compared to assembly under standard conditions [35].
  • Ovine (o) PRL, bovine (b) GH, or human (h) GH were introduced after 2-4 days of culture, and PRL receptors were measured by determining [125I]hGH binding in the presence and absence of excess oPRL in a total particulate fraction pretreated with 3 M MgCl2 [36].
  • Actin purified from the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisae) was polymerized faster than rabbit skeletal alpha-actin by MgCl2 [37].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE

  • INTERVENTIONS--Fifty patients were randomized to receive an intravenous infusion of magnesium chloride, 2 g, and 50 patients received placebo intraoperatively after the termination of cardiopulmonary bypass [38].
  • These proteins have been isolated individually from pupal fat body extracts by using their different thermal stabilities in phosphate buffer containing MgCl2 and (NH4)2SO4, respectively, and purification was completed by gel chromatography [39].
  • 5. This soluble actin preparation (less than 50% pure actin) does not form proper filaments in 0.1 M KCl and 3 mM MgCl2, whereas actin purified from this preparation does, as judged by electron microscopy [40].
  • A Southwestern blot using [32P]poly(dG-m5dC) as a probe in the presence of MgCl2 identified a protein having a molecular weight of 51 kDa [41].
  • The binding isotherm measured in the presence of 5 mM MgCl2 by using the centrifugation assay is described best by a two-site model: Kd1 = 15 nM, Bmax1 (maximal binding) = 270 fmol/mg of protein; Kd2 = 1.1 microM; Bmax2 = 4.2 pmol/mg of protein [42].


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