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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Immunohistochemical localization of leukemia inhibitory factor, interleukins 1 and 6 at the primary implantation site in the rhesus monkey.

Blastocyst implantation and placentation involve localized inflammatory type of responses at and around the site of nidation. In the present study, the likely involvement of inflammatory cytokines, namely, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), interleukins 1 alpha and 1 beta (IL-1alpha and IL-1beta) and IL-6 at the primary implantation site of the rhesus monkey was examined immunocytochemically during lacunar (n=6) and villous (n=8) stages of gestation. Trophoblast cells and extraembryonic mesenchymal cells were immunopositive for LIF and IL-1alpha. The distribution of IL-1beta and IL-6 in trophoblast cells was low in lacunar stage samples, however, a higher degree of immunopositivity for IL-6 was observed in villous stage samples. Decidual cells were immunopositive for all the cytokines studied. In lacunar stage samples, plaque cells adjacent to implanted nidus were immunopositive for all the cytokines examined, and the degree of their immunoprecipitation increased, except that of IL-1beta, during the villous stage. Luminal and glandular epithelial cells were immunopositive for LIF, IL-1alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 in lacunar and in villous stage samples. LIF immunopositivity was detected in endothelial cells of blood vessels within and below chorionic plate and cytotrophoblast shell, while vascular smooth muscle cells were positive for all the cytokines studied. The temporo-spatial characteristics of LIF, IL-1alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 protein expressions in primary implantation sites of the rhesus monkey suggest that these pro-inflammatory cytokines play specific roles in regulating trophoblast cell proliferation, differentiation, invasion and associated maternal tissue remodelling during early gestation.[1]


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