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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Effect of total parenteral nutrition and choline on hepatic flavin-containing and cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase activity in rats.

Total parenteral nutrition provides nutrition by infusion into the systemic circulation. Bypassing the intestine and processes associated with absorption can cause additional pathophysiological changes to occur. For example, in rats, normal gut and pancreatic cell function may change, absorptive capacity may be altered, and enzyme functional activity including drug metabolism may be affected. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a control diet or a diet of total parenteral nutrition in the presence or absence of choline on urinary biomarkers and hepatic microsome functional activity from rats. Selective functional markers of cytochrome P-4502E1 (CYP2E1) and flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) were examined in vitro. The N-oxygenation of trimethylamine was used as an in vivo selective functional marker for FMO. After the administration of total parenteral nutrition plus choline for 5 days, the urinary excretion of trimethylamine and trimethylamine N-oxide declined approximately 7- and 3-fold, respectively, compared with rats treated with control diet. The concentration of urinary biogenic amines was also significantly affected by total parenteral nutrition. Compared with control animals, rats administered total parenteral nutrition plus choline for 5 days showed a decrease of approximately 5- and 2-fold in urinary dopamine and norepinephrine concentration, respectively. To examine a molecular basis for the influence of total parenteral nutrition +/- choline on monooxygenase regulation, hepatic microsomal activity of the FMO and CYP2E1 was examined. Compared with animals treated with a control diet, total parenteral nutrition plus choline in rats caused a 3-fold increase in hepatic microsomal FMO and a 2-fold increase in hepatic cytochrome CYP2E1 functional activity, respectively. Although the data did not reach statistical significance, selective immunoblot studies using hepatic microsomes from rats treated with total parenteral nutrition + choline showed that compared with controls, FMO1 protein was decreased 1.4-fold and FMO3 increased 1.3-fold, respectively. In hepatic microsomes from rats treated with total parenteral nutrition + choline, compared with control animals, FMO4 immunoreactivity was increased 1.6-fold. The data suggest that total parenteral nutrition has a detectable effect on modulating rat FMO3, FMO4, and CYP2E1 monooxygenase functional activity. The clinical relevance of these results is unknown but may be of significance for individuals receiving total parenteral nutrition and those afflicted with trimethylaminuria.[1]


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