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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Leukocyte circulation: one-way or round-trip? Lessons from primary immunodeficiency patients.

The identification of chemokines has profoundly changed the way we interpret the immune response, elucidating the mechanism by which inflammatory cells are recruited to the site of infection by local secretion of chemoattractants such as CXC chemokine ligand 8 (CXCL8)/interleukin-8, chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2)/monocyte chemoattractant protein 1. This novel view of the immune response has been remodeled further following observations that lymphoid tissue development derives from the coordinated secretion of homeostatic chemokines such as CCL19, CCL21, and CXCL13, which mediate recruitment and clustering of the cells involved in lymphoid organogenesis. The study of primary immunodeficiencies has demonstrated that the number of circulating leukocytes is dependent on migration amongst bone marrow, blood circulation, and inflamed tissues. Defects of leukocyte adhesion and chemotaxis as a result of mutations of beta2-integrins lead to abnormal leukocytosis and susceptibility to skin infections, as observed in leukocyte adhesion deficiency. Conversely, neutropenia in children with myelokathexis is a result of leukocyte retention in the bone marrow because of the mutations of CXC chemokine receptor 4, which affect the capacity of cells to recirculate between blood and bone marrow. Moreover, the identification of the genetic basis of primary immunodeficiencies has shown that many primary immunodeficiencies such as Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome and common variable immunodeficiencies are characterized by altered migration of leukocytes and/or disregulation of cellular response to chemokines. This paper will be focused on the interpretation of primary immunodeficiencies as defects in leukocyte circulation between blood and primary and secondary organs.[1]


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