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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Leukocytosis


Psychiatry related information on Leukocytosis

  • Progressive CSF lymphocytic pleocytosis and intrathecal IgG-synthesis occurred late in familial amyotrophy, neuropathy, chorea, and dementia with spherocytosis [6].
  • The hepatitis had a sporadic cyclical pattern of lethargy, inappetance, and icterus, with leukocytosis and increased serum activities of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and gamma-glutamyltransferase [7].
  • The possible associations of visual hallucinations with cyclosporine therapy (7 per cent), CSF pleocytosis with OKT3 therapy (7 per cent), and compressive neuropathy with operative-anesthetic monitoring (7 per cent) were discussed in relation to previous reports in the literature [8].

High impact information on Leukocytosis

  • Two patients with metastatic cancer had extremely high serum vitamin B12 and transcobalamin I levels--greater than those seen in even the most intense granulocytic proliferation--that were not explainable by leukocytosis [9].
  • Conversely, pepducins selective for CXCR4 cause a massive leukocytosis that does not affect survival [10].
  • Pulmonary infiltrates were demonstrated in 14 patients, cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis was seen in 10 patients, and elevated levels of serum creatinine were demonstrated in eight patients [11].
  • A growing number of systemic inflammatory diseases characterized in part by recurrent fevers, leukocytosis, anemia, and elevated acute phase proteins are linked to interleukin (IL)-1 activity since rapid and sustained resolution is observed upon specific blockade of IL-1 receptors [12].
  • In euthymic mice with established infection, treatment with 1-5 micrograms/d murine GM-CSF induced three dose-related effects: peripheral blood leukocytosis, preferential accumulation of myelomonocytic cells at visceral foci of infection, and leishmanicidal activity comparable to that achieved by IFN-gamma [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of Leukocytosis


Biological context of Leukocytosis

  • Univariate analysis showed that unfavorable prognostic factors for overall survival were age 60 years or older (P =.0002), cytogenetic data (P =.002), FAB types other than M2 (P =.002), leukocytosis over 100 +/- 10(9)/L (P =.003), and the FLT3 gene mutation (P =.004) [18].
  • Mice that received a transplant of CD2-IL-5-transgenic F/P(+) HSC/Ps (IL-5Tg-F/P) developed intense leukocytosis, strikingly high eosinophilia, and eosinophilic infiltration of nonhematopoietic as well as hematopoietic tissues, a phenotype resembling human HES [19].
  • Over the 4 months of follow-up, TPO levels in plasma were markedly elevated in both groups of mice, and animals typically developed a myeloproliferative syndrome characterized by thrombocytosis, leukocytosis, splenomegaly, increased numbers of progenitors in blood, and extramedullary hematopoiesis [20].
  • RESULTS: Treatment with IL-1 alpha before carboplatin was associated with moderate leukocytosis (baseline mean, 6.15 x 10(3)/microL; maximum mean, 17.9 x 10(3)/microL; P < .001) and significant increases in platelet counts (baseline mean, 241 x 10(3)/microL; maximal mean, 392 x 10(3)/microL; P < .001) [21].
  • Administration of bretylium, an antihypertensive and anti-arrhythmic agent, resulted in reduction of blood pressure and the severities of glomerulonephritis, DVD, and MI; it also slightly reduced the levels of circulating immune complexes and leukocytosis [22].

Anatomical context of Leukocytosis


Gene context of Leukocytosis

  • The combined action of these cytokines causes fever, leukocytosis and the production of acute phase proteins such as C-reactive protein (CRP) [28].
  • Correlation between VEGF expression and peripheral leukocytosis suggests that these changes may also reflect the immunologic status of the patient [29].
  • Despite the high CSF levels of IL-8, minimal leukocytosis was seen [30].
  • 5-Lipoxygenase-deficient (5LX(-/-)) and C5-deficient mice only generated about 50% as much peritoneal leukocytosis as wild-type mice following intraperitoneal (IP) challenge with the sterile irritant, thioglycollate (P<0.005) [31].
  • In uPAR-deficient mice, CSF pleocytosis was significantly attenuated 24 h after infection, compared with that in infected wild-type (wt) mice [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Leukocytosis


  1. Acute myocardial infarction. Prognostic value of white blood cell count and blood glucose level. Modan, B., Schor, S., Shani, M. JAMA (1975) [Pubmed]
  2. Inhibition of leukocyte rolling with polysaccharide fucoidin prevents pleocytosis in experimental meningitis in the rabbit. Granert, C., Raud, J., Xie, X., Lindquist, L., Lindbom, L. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Expression of ras oncogenes in cultured human cells alters the transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of cytokine genes. Demetri, G.D., Ernst, T.J., Pratt, E.S., Zenzie, B.W., Rheinwald, J.G., Griffin, J.D. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. A structure-activity relationship for induction of meningeal inflammation by muramyl peptides. Burroughs, M., Rozdzinski, E., Geelen, S., Tuomanen, E. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Metabolic abnormalities associated with intentional theophylline overdose. Hall, K.W., Dobson, K.E., Dalton, J.G., Ghignone, M.C., Penner, S.B. Ann. Intern. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  6. Delayed immune response in chorea-amyotrophy with spherocytosis. Lagrèze, H.L., Kornguth, S.E., Brooks, B.R., Levine, R.L. Neurology (1988) [Pubmed]
  7. Hepatitis B-like infection in a Pacific white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens). Bossart, G.D., Brawner, T.A., Cabal, C., Kuhns, M., Eimstad, E.A., Caron, J., Trimm, M., Bradley, P. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. Neurologic complications of pancreas transplants. Kiok, M.C. Neurologic clinics. (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Extreme elevation of serum transcobalamin I in patients with metastatic cancer. Carmel, R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  10. Reversing systemic inflammatory response syndrome with chemokine receptor pepducins. Kaneider, N.C., Agarwal, A., Leger, A.J., Kuliopulos, A. Nat. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory findings of human ehrlichiosis in the United States, 1988. Eng, T.R., Harkess, J.R., Fishbein, D.B., Dawson, J.E., Greene, C.N., Redus, M.A., Satalowich, F.T. JAMA (1990) [Pubmed]
  12. Blocking IL-1 in systemic inflammation. Dinarello, C.A. J. Exp. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Effect of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in experimental visceral leishmaniasis. Murray, H.W., Cervia, J.S., Hariprashad, J., Taylor, A.P., Stoeckle, M.Y., Hockman, H. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Induction of arthritis by purified cell-derived chemotactic factor: role of chemotaxis and vascular permeability. Spilberg, I., Rosenberg, D., Mandell, B. J. Clin. Invest. (1977) [Pubmed]
  15. Rearrangements of the retinoic acid receptor alpha and promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger genes resulting from t(11;17)(q23;q21) in a patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia. Chen, S.J., Zelent, A., Tong, J.H., Yu, H.Q., Wang, Z.Y., Derré, J., Berger, R., Waxman, S., Chen, Z. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Comparison of agents producing a neutrophilic leukocytosis in man. Hydrocortisone, prednisone, endotoxin, and etiocholanolone. Dale, D.C., Fauci, A.S., Guerry D, I.V., Wolff, S.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1975) [Pubmed]
  17. Acute renal failure with neurological involvement in adults associated with measles virus isolation. Wairagkar, N.S., Gandhi, B.V., Katrak, S.M., Shaikh, N.J., Parikh, P.R., Wadia, N.H., Gadkari, D.A. Lancet (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Prognostic implication of FLT3 and N-RAS gene mutations in acute myeloid leukemia. Kiyoi, H., Naoe, T., Nakano, Y., Yokota, S., Minami, S., Miyawaki, S., Asou, N., Kuriyama, K., Jinnai, I., Shimazaki, C., Akiyama, H., Saito, K., Oh, H., Motoji, T., Omoto, E., Saito, H., Ohno, R., Ueda, R. Blood (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. The FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion gene cooperates with IL-5 to induce murine hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES)/chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL)-like disease. Yamada, Y., Rothenberg, M.E., Lee, A.W., Akei, H.S., Brandt, E.B., Williams, D.A., Cancelas, J.A. Blood (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Prominent role of TGF-beta 1 in thrombopoietin-induced myelofibrosis in mice. Chagraoui, H., Komura, E., Tulliez, M., Giraudier, S., Vainchenker, W., Wendling, F. Blood (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Effects of interleukin-1 alpha on carboplatin-induced thrombocytopenia in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer. Vadhan-Raj, S., Kudelka, A.P., Garrison, L., Gano, J., Edwards, C.L., Freedman, R.S., Kavanagh, J.J. J. Clin. Oncol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. The role of hypertension in the vascular disease and myocardial infarcts associated with murine systemic lupus erythematosus. Hang, L., Stephens-Larson, P., Henry, J.P., Dixon, F.J. Arthritis Rheum. (1983) [Pubmed]
  23. Intraarticular expression of biologically active interleukin 1-receptor-antagonist protein by ex vivo gene transfer. Bandara, G., Mueller, G.M., Galea-Lauri, J., Tindal, M.H., Georgescu, H.I., Suchanek, M.K., Hung, G.L., Glorioso, J.C., Robbins, P.D., Evans, C.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Recombinant human GM-CSF induces leukocytosis and activates peripheral blood polymorphonuclear neutrophils in nonhuman primates. Mayer, P., Lam, C., Obenaus, H., Liehl, E., Besemer, J. Blood (1987) [Pubmed]
  25. The presence of a FLT3 internal tandem duplication in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) adds important prognostic information to cytogenetic risk group and response to the first cycle of chemotherapy: analysis of 854 patients from the United Kingdom Medical Research Council AML 10 and 12 trials. Kottaridis, P.D., Gale, R.E., Frew, M.E., Harrison, G., Langabeer, S.E., Belton, A.A., Walker, H., Wheatley, K., Bowen, D.T., Burnett, A.K., Goldstone, A.H., Linch, D.C. Blood (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Central nervous system systemic lupus erythematosus versus central nervous system infection: low cerebral spinal fluid glucose and pleocytosis in a patient with a prolonged course. Reinitz, E., Hubbard, D., Grayzel, A.I. Arthritis Rheum. (1982) [Pubmed]
  27. Bcl-x(L) and Akt cooperate to promote leukemogenesis in vivo. Karnauskas, R., Niu, Q., Talapatra, S., Plas, D.R., Greene, M.E., Crispino, J.D., Rudin, C.M. Oncogene (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. The involvement of TNF, IL-1 and IL-6 in the immune response to protozoan parasites. Titus, R.G., Sherry, B., Cerami, A. Immunol. Today (1991) [Pubmed]
  29. Serial measurement of vascular endothelial growth factor and transforming growth factor-beta1 in serum of patients with acute ischemic stroke. Slevin, M., Krupinski, J., Slowik, A., Kumar, P., Szczudlik, A., Gaffney, J. Stroke (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Cytokine profiles in cerebrospinal fluid of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with cryptococcal meningitis: no leukocytosis despite high interleukin-8 levels. University of Zimbabwe Meningitis Group. Chaka, W., Heyderman, R., Gangaidzo, I., Robertson, V., Mason, P., Verhoef, J., Verheul, A., Hoepelman, A.I. J. Infect. Dis. (1997) [Pubmed]
  31. Thioglycollate peritonitis in mice lacking C5, 5-lipoxygenase, or p47(phox): complement, leukotrienes, and reactive oxidants in acute inflammation. Segal, B.H., Kuhns, D.B., Ding, L., Gallin, J.I., Holland, S.M. J. Leukoc. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor regulates leukocyte recruitment during experimental pneumococcal meningitis. Paul, R., Winkler, F., Bayerlein, I., Popp, B., Pfister, H.W., Koedel, U. J. Infect. Dis. (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Early mortality and the retinoic acid syndrome in acute promyelocytic leukemia: impact of leukocytosis, low-dose chemotherapy, PMN/RAR-alpha isoform, and CD13 expression in patients treated with all-trans retinoic acid. Vahdat, L., Maslak, P., Miller, W.H., Eardley, A., Heller, G., Scheinberg, D.A., Warrell, R.P. Blood (1994) [Pubmed]
  34. The myeloma-associated oncogene fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 is transforming in hematopoietic cells. Li, Z., Zhu, Y.X., Plowright, E.E., Bergsagel, P.L., Chesi, M., Patterson, B., Hawley, T.S., Hawley, R.G., Stewart, A.K. Blood (2001) [Pubmed]
  35. Activating mutation of D835 within the activation loop of FLT3 in human hematologic malignancies. Yamamoto, Y., Kiyoi, H., Nakano, Y., Suzuki, R., Kodera, Y., Miyawaki, S., Asou, N., Kuriyama, K., Yagasaki, F., Shimazaki, C., Akiyama, H., Saito, K., Nishimura, M., Motoji, T., Shinagawa, K., Takeshita, A., Saito, H., Ueda, R., Ohno, R., Naoe, T. Blood (2001) [Pubmed]
  36. MRI changes in intracranial hypotension. Pannullo, S.C., Reich, J.B., Krol, G., Deck, M.D., Posner, J.B. Neurology (1993) [Pubmed]
  37. Inoculation of nonhuman primates with the N40 strain of Borrelia burgdorferi leads to a model of Lyme neuroborreliosis faithful to the human disease. Pachner, A.R., Delaney, E., O'Neill, T., Major, E. Neurology (1995) [Pubmed]
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