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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Mutations in the SLC26A4 (pendrin) gene in patients with sensorineural deafness and enlarged vestibular aqueduct.

Pendred syndrome and the enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) are considered phenotypic variations of the same entity due to mutations in the SLC26A4 (pendrin) gene. Pendred syndrome consists in sensorineural deafness, goiter and impaired thyroid hormone synthesis while in EVA thyroid function seems to be preserved. The aim of this study was to evaluate thyroid function and morphology and to look for mutations in the SLC26A4 gene in patients presented with EVA. Among 57 consecutive patients with sensorineural deafness 15 with EVA, as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), were identified and studied. A complete evaluation of thyroid function including thyroid echography and perchlorate discharge test was carried out in all patients with EVA; all exons of the SLC26A4 gene were amplified from peripheral leukocytes and directly sequenced, using specific intronic primers. Out of 15 patients with EVA, goiter was present in 8 (53%), hypothyroidism in 7 (47%), increased serum thyroglobulin levels in 8 (53%) and a positive perchlorate discharge test in 10 (67%). Nine alleles of the SLC26A4 gene were mutated: 2 novel mutations (L465W and G497R) and 4 already known mutations (T410M, R409H, T505N and IVS1001+1G>A) were found. Four subjects were compound heterozygous and 1 heterozygous (G497R/wt). All patients harbouring mutations in the SLC26A4 gene had goiter and a positive perchlorate discharge test: 3 were slightly hypothyroid and 2 euthyroid. The remaining 10 patients had no mutations in the SLC26A4 gene: 4 of them were hypothyroid, 2 with goiter and positive perchlorate discharge test, 2 without goiter and with negative perchlorate discharge test. Two patients without mutations were euthyroid with positive perchlorate discharge test. Patients with mutations in the SLC26A4 gene had larger thyroid volume (p<0.002), higher serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels (p<0.002) and greater radioiodine discharge after perchlorate (p=0.09) than patients without mutations. The results of the present study lend support to the concept that all patients with mutated SLC26A4 gene have abnormalities of thyroid function tests.[1]


  1. Mutations in the SLC26A4 (pendrin) gene in patients with sensorineural deafness and enlarged vestibular aqueduct. Bogazzi, F., Russo, D., Raggi, F., Ultimieri, F., Berrettini, S., Forli, F., Grasso, L., Ceccarelli, C., Mariotti, S., Pinchera, A., Bartalena, L., Martino, E. J. Endocrinol. Invest. (2004) [Pubmed]
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