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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Cross communication between signaling pathways: juvenoid hormones modulate ecdysteroid activity in a crustacean.

Methyl farnesoate is a juvenoid hormone that regulates a variety of processes in crustaceans including male sex determination among daphnids (Branchiopoda, Cladocera). The synthetic juvenoids pyriproxyfen and fenoxycarb mimic the action of methyl farnesoate in daphnids. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that juvenoids also can regulate ecdysteroid activity in a crustacean (Daphnia magna). Methyl farnesoate, pyriproxyfen, and fenoxycarb all disrupted ecdysteroid-regulated aspects of embryo development in daphnids. Exposure of ecdysteroid-responsive cells to 20-hydroxyecdysone reduced cell proliferation and increased mRNA levels of the ecdysone receptor and its partner protein ultraspiracle. Co-treatment of cells with the juvenoid pyriproxyfen attenuated all of these ecdysteroid mediated responses. While juvenoids functioned as anti-ecdysteroids in both intact embryos and in cultured cells, 20-hydroxyecdysone showed no evidence of acting as an anti-juvenoid. The combined effects of pyroproxyfen with the ecdysteroid synthesis inhibitor fenarimol and the ecdysteroid receptor antagonist testosterone were evaluated in an effort to discern whether the action of the juvenoids were additive with those of know anti-ecdysteroids. The anti-ecdysteroid effects of pyriproxyfen were non-additive with those of either anti-ecdysteroid. Rather, joint effects conformed to a model of synergy. These results demonstrated that juvenoids elicit anti-ecdysteroidal activity in a crustacean through a unique mechanism of action. A model involving receptor partner deprivation is proposed that explains the synergistic interactions observed.[1]


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