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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

IQGAPs are differentially expressed and regulated in polarized gastric epithelial cells.

IQGAPs, GTPase-activating proteins with an IQ motif, are thought to regulate many actin cytoskeleton-based activities through interactions with Cdc42 and Rac. Recently, Cdc42 was implicated in regulation of gastric parietal cell HCl secretion, and IQGAP2 was immunolocalized with Cdc42 to F-actin-rich intracellular canalicular membranes of isolated gastric parietal cells in primary culture. Here we sought to define distribution and localization of IQGAP1 and IQGAP2 in major oxyntic (acid-secreting) gastric mucosal cell types and to determine whether secretory agonists modulate these proteins. Differential staining protocols were used to identify different cell populations (parietal, chief, surface/pit, and mucous neck cells) in semi-intact glands isolated from rabbit gastric mucosae and to characterize these same cells after dispersion and fractionation on isopycnic density gradients with simultaneous staining for F-actin, H+-K+-ATPase, and GSII lectin-binding sites. There was a pronounced increase in intracellular F-actin staining in dispersed chief cells, apparently from internalization of F-actin-rich apical membranes that normally abut the gland lumen. Therefore, other membrane-associated proteins might also be redistributed by disruption of cell-cell contacts. Western blot analyses were used to quantitate relative concentrations of IQGAPs in defined mucosal cell fractions, and gastric glands were used for in situ localizations. We detected uniform levels of IQGAP2 expression in oxyntic mucosal cells with predominant targeting to regions of cell-cell contact and nuclei of all cell types. IQGAP2 was not detected in parietal cell intracellular canaliculi. IQGAP1 expression was variable and targeted predominantly to the cortex of chief and mucous neck cells. Parietal cells expressed little or no IQGAP1 vs. other mucosal cell types. Phosphoprotein affinity chromatography, isoelectric focusing, and phosphorylation site analyses indicated that both IQGAP1 and IQGAP2 are phosphoproteins potentially regulated by [Ca2+]i/PKC and cAMP signaling pathways, respectively. Stimulation of glands with carbachol, which elevates [Ca2+]i and activates PKC, induced apparent translocation of IQGAP1, but not IQGAP2, to apical poles of chief (zymogen) and mucous neck cells. This response was mimicked by PMA but not by ionomycin or by elevation of [cAMP]i with forskolin. Our observations support a novel, PKC-dependent role for IQGAP1 in regulated exocytosis and suggest that IQGAP2 may play a more general role in regulating cell-cell interactions and possibly migration within the gastric mucosa.[1]


  1. IQGAPs are differentially expressed and regulated in polarized gastric epithelial cells. Chew, C.S., Okamoto, C.T., Chen, X., Qin, H.Y. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
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