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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

In vitro combination of amdoxovir and the inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibitors mycophenolic acid and ribavirin demonstrates potent activity against wild-type and drug-resistant variants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

Amdoxovir [(-)-beta-d-2,6-diaminopurine dioxolane (DAPD)] is a nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. DAPD is deaminated by adenosine deaminase to the guanosine analogue dioxolane guanosine (DXG), which is subsequently phosphorylated to the corresponding 5' triphosphate (DXG-TP). DXG-TP competes with the natural substrate dGTP for binding to the enzyme-nucleic acid complex. Mycophenolic acid (MPA) and ribavirin (RBV), inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), inhibit the de novo synthesis of guanine nucleotides, including dGTP. Reducing the intracellular levels of dGTP would be expected to augment the antiviral activity of analogues of deoxyguanosine. In this study we examined the effect of MPA and RBV on the anti-HIV activity of DAPD and DXG. When tested against wild-type virus, both MPA and RBV decreased the 50% effective concentration (EC(50)) for DXG by at least 10-fold. In contrast, both MPA and RBV increase the EC(50) value for zidovudine. MPA and RBV completely reversed the resistance to DXG observed with HIV isolates containing mutations which confer partial resistance to DAPD and DXG. Similarly, when tested against a mutant virus fully resistant to inhibition by DAPD (K65R/Q151M), MPA and RBV reduced the EC(50) for DAPD to within twofold of that for the wild type. The combination of MPA or RBV with DAPD or DXG did not result in increased cytotoxicity or reduced levels of mitochondrial DNA when tested at physiologically relevant concentrations. These studies suggest a potential role for the use of IMPDH inhibitors in combination therapy with amdoxovir in the treatment of HIV.[1]


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