The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Alterations of gene expression in human neutrophils induced by smoking cessation.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of smoking cessation on the peripheral neutrophil mRNA expression levels for inflammatory cytokines, chemokine, growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixteen male smokers (aged 22-39 [25.3+/-4.0] years), with no clinical signs of periodontal and systemic diseases, were recruited. The experiment was performed before (baseline) and at 1, 4 and 8 weeks after smoking cessation. The status of smoking and smoking cessation was verified by exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) concentration and serum cotinine concentration. Neutrophils were isolated from each subjects' peripheral blood, then the cell was stimulated with N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP). The mRNA expression levels for interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and MMP-8 were analyzed by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions. The same experiment was performed on 11 non-smoking controls (four female and seven male), aged 23-27 (24.4+/-1.2) years. RESULTS: Eleven of 16 smokers successfully completed smoking cessation for 8 weeks. At 1 day after smoking cessation, there was a statistically significantly lower CO concentration than at baseline (p<0.01). Also, cotinine concentration markedly decreased at the second measurement, which was taken at 1 week. All of the analyzed mRNA expression levels of neutrophils from smokers were statistically significantly lower than that in non-smokers (p<0.01: IL-1 beta, IL-8, VEGF; p<0.05: TNF-alpha, MMP-8). The MMP-8 mRNA levels were statistically significantly increased at 8 weeks after smoking cessation compared with the baseline (p<0.05). Although the other mRNA expression levels were also elevated gradually from the baseline, they did not reach the statistically significant levels at 8 weeks after smoking cessation. CONCLUSION: The results showed that the neutrophil transcript levels in smokers were generally lower than those in non-smokers, which could be related to an impairment of neutrophils by smoking effects. The significant increase of MMP-8 mRNA levels were associated with the effects of smoking cessation, while recovery of the other mRNA levels seemed to require a bit longer period beyond 8 weeks after smoking cessation.[1]


  1. Alterations of gene expression in human neutrophils induced by smoking cessation. Morozumi, T., Kubota, T., Sugita, N., Itagaki, M., Yoshie, H. Journal of clinical periodontology. (2004) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities