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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Transcriptional regulator CTCF controls human interleukin 1 receptor-associated kinase 2 promoter.

Immune responses to invading pathogens are mediated largely through a family of transmembrane Toll-like receptors and modulated by a number of downstream effectors. In particular, a family of four interleukin 1 receptor-associated kinases (IRAK) regulates responsiveness to bacterial endotoxins. Pharmacological targeting of particular IRAK components may be beneficial for treatment of bacterial infections. Here, we studied transcriptional regulation of the human IRAK2 gene. Analysis of the IRAK2 promoter region reveals putative binding sites for several transcriptional factors, including ZIP (EGR1 and SP1), CTCF and AP-2beta. Deletion of the ZIP or AP-2 sites did not significantly affect IRAK2 promoter activity in naive and endotoxin-treated mononuclear cells, in dormant and activated Jurkat T-cells, in lung and kidney cells. In contrast, we found that CTCF plays a major role in IRAK2 transcription. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay of the DNA fragments containing the IRAK2 CpG island, revealed a single high-affinity binding site for the transcriptional regulator and a chromatin insulator protein, CTCF. This assay revealed a CTCF- binding site within the mouse Irak2 promoter. The presence of the CTCF protein in human IRAK2 promoter was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Specific residues that interacted with the CTCF protein, were identified by methylation interference assay. In all cell lines analyzed, including cells of lung, renal, monocytic and T-cell origin, the IRAK2 luciferase reporter construct, containing an intact CTCF-binding site, showed strong promoter activity. However, IRAK2 promoter activity was decreased dramatically for the constructs with a mutated CTCF-binding site.[1]


  1. Transcriptional regulator CTCF controls human interleukin 1 receptor-associated kinase 2 promoter. Kuzmin, I., Geil, L., Gibson, L., Cavinato, T., Loukinov, D., Lobanenkov, V., Lerman, M.I. J. Mol. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
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