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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

In vitro effects of calcium hydroxide and polymyxin B on endotoxins in root canals.

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of intracanal medicaments on endotoxins in root canals. METHODS: Seventy-five freshly extracted maxillary incisors were used in this study. The crowns of teeth were sectioned near the CEJ in order to standardize the root length to 14 mm. The root canals were instrumented to an apical size #50 file and irrigated with 1% sodium hypochlorite solution and sterilized with 60Co gamma irradiation. Standardized suspension containing Escherichia coli endotoxin was inoculated into the 60 root canals. The specimens were randomly assigned to 5 groups (n=15), according to the intracanal medicament used: ( G1) calcium hydroxide; ( G2) polymyxin B; (G3) combination neomycin-polymyxin B-hydrocortisone; (G4) positive control (no intracanal medicament); (G5) negative control (no endotoxin and no intracanal medicament). After 7 days, the detoxification of endotoxin was evaluated by Limulus lysate assay and antibody production in B-lymphocytes culture. RESULTS: Groups 1, 2 and 5 presented the best results by Limulus lysate and were significantly different to groups 3 and 4 (p<0.05). Stimulation of antibodies production in cell culture by groups 1 and 6 was smaller and statistically different than groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 (p<0.05). Groups 2 and 5 induced a small increase in the antibodies production in relation to the groups 1 and 6. Groups 3 and 4 induced a significant increase of antibodies production (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The calcium hydroxide and polymyxin B intracanal medicaments detoxified endotoxin in root canals and altered the properties of LPS to stimulate the antibody production by B-lymphocytes. The combination neomycin-polymyxin B-hydrocortisone did not detoxified endotoxin.[1]


  1. In vitro effects of calcium hydroxide and polymyxin B on endotoxins in root canals. Oliveira, L.D., Leão, M.V., Carvalho, C.A., Camargo, C.H., Valera, M.C., Jorge, A.O., Unterkircher, C.S. Journal of dentistry. (2005) [Pubmed]
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