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MeSH Review

Horseshoe Crabs

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Disease relevance of Horseshoe Crabs


High impact information on Horseshoe Crabs

  • All three residues mutated in DFNA9 are conserved in mouse and chicken Coch, and are found in a region containing four conserved cysteines with homology to a domain in factor C, a lipopolysaccharide-binding coagulation factor in Limulus polyphemus [6].
  • Using the large ventral photoreceptor of the horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) we describe a method for measuring the transient increase in the mitochondrial O2 consumption (delta QO2) following a flash of light of a single photoreceptor [7].
  • We propose that one of the steps in the excitatory cascade in Limulus ventral photoreceptors may be an increase in intracellular concentration of myo-inositol polyphosphates, derived from hydrolysis of the membrane component phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate by a phospholipase [8].
  • Efferent fibers to Limulus eyes synthesize and release octopamine [9].
  • Excitation of Limulus photoreceptors by vanadate and by a hydrolysis-resistant analog of guanosine triphosphate [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Horseshoe Crabs


Biological context of Horseshoe Crabs

  • We propose that outward movement of myosin heads and thick filament shortening in Limulus muscle are responses to activation that are dependent on phosphorylation of regulatory myosin light chains [16].
  • A polyclonal antibody against the human COCH protein product, cochlin, was raised against the N-terminal 135 amino acid residues of cochlin, corresponding to the Limulus factor C-homology (cochFCH) domain; this domain harbors all five known point mutations in DFNA9 [17].
  • Also, expressing Limulus opsin cDNA in the R1-R6 photoreceptors of transgenic Drosophila yielded a visual pigment that bound retinal, had normal spectral properties, and coupled to the endogenous phototransduction cascade [18].
  • The Limulus Factor C (FC), a multidomain glycoprotein that binds bacterial endotoxin with high affinity, belongs to the serine protease family of the complement and blood coagulation cascade [19].
  • The coding regions of the Limulus and human CRP genes share approximately 25% identity and two stretches of highly conserved regions, one of which falls in the region proposed as the phosphorylcholine binding site, while the other site is very similar to the consensus sequence required for calcium binding in calmodulin and related proteins [20].

Anatomical context of Horseshoe Crabs

  • Our biochemical studies on the hemolymph coagulation-complement system using limulus indicate that the circulating hemocytes contain at least four serine protease zymogens and one clottable protein, coagulogen, which constitute a cascade triggered by bacterial endotoxins and (1,3)-beta-D-glucan [21].
  • The discovery of lipopolysaccharide-sensitive and (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan-sensitive serine protease zymogens in horseshoe crab (limulus) hemocytes, both of which trigger the coagulation cascade, has exemplified how the animals detect and respond to foreign materials [22].
  • Tropomyosin by itself increases the sliding velocity of actin filaments over phosphorylated Limulus myosin about 10-fold in a calcium-independent manner [23].
  • In conclusion, the incorporation of lipopolysaccharide into the liposomal membrane probably prevents the interaction of the hydrophobic portion of the lipid A component of lipopolysaccharide with the plasma-membrane structures involved in the activation of macrophages and with the proteins of the Limulus amoebocyte lysate [24].
  • Conversely, the helper T cell activity that was induced by Lens culinalis agglutinin and separated by Limulus polyphemus agglutinin, was eliminated by treatment of the cells with anti-GM1 and complement, but not by the treatment with the other anti-glycolipid antisera and complement [25].

Associations of Horseshoe Crabs with chemical compounds


Gene context of Horseshoe Crabs

  • Both forms of LBP bound to LPS with the same affinity, and similarly inhibited LPS activity in the Limulus amebocyte lysate assay [31].
  • Besides leukocytes, C3a, C5a, and limulus amebocyte lysate reactivity, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-6, IL-1RA, soluble TNF receptors, and IL-1 beta mRNA were assessed [32].
  • These data suggest, if the synergism between IFN and endotoxin also operates in the homologous system (human IFN-human cells), that contaminating endotoxin in IFNs, even if not detectable by Limulus amoebocyte lysate test, can contribute to IFN fever to a considerable extent in humans [33].
  • Nonpyrogenic amounts of endotoxin (0.1 to 1 ng/kg), hardly detectable by conventional Limulus amoebocyte lysate tests, could produce a fever of around 1 degree C when injected with a nonpyrogenic dose (6 X 10(5) U/kg) of recombinant human beta interferon (IFN-beta) in rabbits [33].
  • Akhirin consists of one LCCL (Limulus factor C, Coch-5b2, and Lgl1) domain and two von Willebrand factor domains and displays high structural homology to vitrin and cochlin [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Horseshoe Crabs


  1. Isolation from human serum of an inactivator of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Johnson, K.J., Ward, P.A., Goralnick, S., Osborn, M.J. Am. J. Pathol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  2. Isolation and characterization of proteins that bind to galactose, lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli, and protein A of Staphylococcus aureus from the hemolymph of Tachypleus tridentatus. Chiou, S.T., Chen, Y.W., Chen, S.C., Chao, C.F., Liu, T.Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Low endotoxic activities of synthetic Salmonella-type lipid A with an additional acyloxyacyl group on the 2-amino group of beta (1-6) glucosamine disaccharide 1,4'-bisphosphate. Kotani, S., Takada, H., Takahashi, I., Tsujimoto, M., Ogawa, T., Ikeda, T., Harada, K., Okamura, H., Tamura, T., Tanaka, S. Infect. Immun. (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. Heparin inhibition of endotoxin-dependent Limulus amebocyte lysate coagulation. Marcum, J.A., Levin, J. Thromb. Haemost. (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Comparison of the histamine hypersensitivity and the Limulus amoebocyte lysate tests for endotoxin activity. Munoz, J.J., Bergman, R.K., Robbins, K.E. Infect. Immun. (1978) [Pubmed]
  6. Mutations in a novel cochlear gene cause DFNA9, a human nonsyndromic deafness with vestibular dysfunction. Robertson, N.G., Lu, L., Heller, S., Merchant, S.N., Eavey, R.D., McKenna, M., Nadol, J.B., Miyamoto, R.T., Linthicum, F.H., Lubianca Neto, J.F., Hudspeth, A.J., Seidman, C.E., Morton, C.C., Seidman, J.G. Nat. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Activation of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism by calcium ions in Limulus ventral photoreceptor. Fein, A., Tsacopoulos, M. Nature (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. myo-Inositol polyphosphate may be a messenger for visual excitation in Limulus photoreceptors. Brown, J.E., Rubin, L.J., Ghalayini, A.J., Tarver, A.P., Irvine, R.F., Berridge, M.J., Anderson, R.E. Nature (1984) [Pubmed]
  9. Efferent fibers to Limulus eyes synthesize and release octopamine. Batelle, B.A., Evans, J.A., Chamberlain, S.C. Science (1982) [Pubmed]
  10. Excitation of Limulus photoreceptors by vanadate and by a hydrolysis-resistant analog of guanosine triphosphate. Fein, A., Corson, D.W. Science (1981) [Pubmed]
  11. In vitro generation of procoagulant activity by Corynebacterium parvum-stimulated mononuclear leukocytes. Miragliotta, G., Marcuccio, C., Ricci, G., Barone, G., Fumarola, D. J. Leukoc. Biol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  12. A Cytophaga species endotoxin as a putative agent of occupation-related lung disease. Flaherty, D.K., Deck, F.H., Hood, M.A., Liebert, C., Singleton, F., Winzenburger, P., Bishop, K., Smith, L.R., Bynum, L.M., Witmer, W.B. Infect. Immun. (1984) [Pubmed]
  13. Synthesis and characterization of lipooligosaccharide-based conjugates as vaccine candidates for Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis. Gu, X.X., Chen, J., Barenkamp, S.J., Robbins, J.B., Tsai, C.M., Lim, D.J., Battey, J. Infect. Immun. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Sialyl residues in hepatitis B antigen: their role in determining the life span of the antigen in serum and in eliciting an immunological response. Neurath, A.R., Hashimoto, N., Prince, A.M. J. Gen. Virol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  15. Second-messenger systems underlying amine and peptide actions on cardiac muscle in the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus. Groome, J.R., Watson, W.H. J. Exp. Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  16. Effects of phosphorylation by myosin light chain kinase on the structure of Limulus thick filaments. Levine, R.J., Chantler, P.D., Kensler, R.W., Woodhead, J.L. J. Cell Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Inner ear localization of mRNA and protein products of COCH, mutated in the sensorineural deafness and vestibular disorder, DFNA9. Robertson, N.G., Resendes, B.L., Lin, J.S., Lee, C., Aster, J.C., Adams, J.C., Morton, C.C. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Heterologous expression of limulus rhodopsin. Knox, B.E., Salcedo, E., Mathiesz, K., Schaefer, J., Chou, W.H., Chadwell, L.V., Smith, W.C., Britt, S.G., Barlow, R.B. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Modular arrangement and secretion of a multidomain serine protease. Evidence for involvement of proline-rich region and N-glycans in the secretion pathway. Wang, J., Tan, N.S., Ho, B., Ding, J.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Isolation and characterization of Limulus C-reactive protein genes. Nguyen, N.Y., Suzuki, A., Cheng, S.M., Zon, G., Liu, T.Y. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  21. The limulus clotting reaction. Iwanaga, S. Curr. Opin. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  22. The role of hemolymph coagulation in innate immunity. Muta, T., Iwanaga, S. Curr. Opin. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Regulation of actomyosin interactions in Limulus muscle proteins. Wang, F., Martin, B.M., Sellers, J.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Modulation of the biological activity of bacterial endotoxin by incorporation into liposomes. Dijkstra, J., Mellors, J.W., Ryan, J.L., Szoka, F.C. J. Immunol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  25. Characterization of mouse helper and suppressor T cell subsets separated by lectins. Nakano, T., Imai, Y., Naiki, M., Osawa, T. J. Immunol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  26. Both photons and fluoride ions excite limulus ventral photoreceptors. Fein, A., Corson, D.W. Science (1979) [Pubmed]
  27. Inflammatory responses induced by the filarial nematode Brugia malayi are mediated by lipopolysaccharide-like activity from endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria. Taylor, M.J., Cross, H.F., Bilo, K. J. Exp. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Feedback inhibition by calcium limits the release of calcium by inositol trisphosphate in Limulus ventral photoreceptors. Payne, R., Flores, T.M., Fein, A. Neuron (1990) [Pubmed]
  29. Interaction of lectins with membrane receptors on erythrocyte surfaces. Sung, L.A., Kabat, E.A., Chien, S. J. Cell Biol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  30. Pyrogenic reactions after inadvertent infusion of endotoxin during cardiac catheterizations. Reyes, M.P., Ganguly, S., Fowler, M., Brown, W.J., Gatmaitan, B.G., Friedman, C., Lerner, A.M. Ann. Intern. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  31. An amino-terminal fragment of human lipopolysaccharide-binding protein retains lipid A binding but not CD14-stimulatory activity. Theofan, G., Horwitz, A.H., Williams, R.E., Liu, P.S., Chan, I., Birr, C., Carroll, S.F., Mészáros, K., Parent, J.B., Kasler, H. J. Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  32. Cytokine profiles during clinical high-flux dialysis: no evidence for cytokine generation by circulating monocytes. Grooteman, M.P., Nubé, M.J., Daha, M.R., Van Limbeek, J., van Deuren, M., Schoorl, M., Bet, P.M., Van Houte, A.J. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  33. Augmentation of endotoxin fever by recombinant human beta interferon in rabbits. Kawasaki, H., Moriyama, M., Tanaka, A. Infect. Immun. (1987) [Pubmed]
  34. Novel soluble molecule, Akhirin, is expressed in the embryonic chick eyes and exhibits heterophilic cell-adhesion activity. Ahsan, M., Ohta, K., Kuriyama, S., Tanaka, H. Dev. Dyn. (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. A homologue of alpha 2-macroglobulin purified from the hemolymph of the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus. Quigley, J.P., Armstrong, P.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  36. The amino acid sequence of Limulus C-reactive protein. Evidence of polymorphism. Nguyen, N.Y., Suzuki, A., Boykins, R.A., Liu, T.Y. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  37. Hemocyanin of the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus. Structural differentiation of the isolated components. Sullivan, B., Bonaventura, J., Bonaventura, C., Godette, G. J. Biol. Chem. (1976) [Pubmed]
  38. Transcriptional regulation of limulus factor C: repression of an NFkappaB motif modulates its responsiveness to bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Wang, L., Ho, B., Ding, J.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  39. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoproteins gp120 and gp160 induce interleukin-6 production in CD4+ T-cell clones. Oyaizu, N., Chirmule, N., Ohnishi, Y., Kalyanaraman, V.S., Pahwa, S. J. Virol. (1991) [Pubmed]
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