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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Incisor


Psychiatry related information on Incisor

  • Long-term follow-up of a single neonatal injection of dexamethasone (0.2 or 1 mg/kg s.c. on postnatal day 7) revealed an acceleration of some developmental landmarks in the preweaning period (incisor eruption, eye opening, motor skill) on the one hand, but a retardation of body growth and vaginal opening on the other hand [6].
  • Behavioral/developmental effects included performance deficits in a modified Morris water maze assay, in air righting and auditory startle responses, and increases in locomotor activity, accelerated eye opening, incisor eruption, negative geotaxis, and olfactory orientation [7].
  • The diagnosis of Cohen syndrome is based on the recognition of certain clinical findings, which include mental retardation, typical morphologic stigmata (e.g., truncal obesity, hypotonia, short philtrum, prominent frontal incisors, high-arched palate, narrow hands and feet), and characteristic ophthalmologic abnormalities [8].
  • The increase in pain threshold of the pulpal nerve was measured before and after injection of lidocaine alone and lidocaine with epinephrine concentrations of 1:200,000, 1:100,000, or 1:50,000 into the mucobuccal aspect adjacent to the apex of the maxillary right incisor [9].
  • Offspring assigned to the Cincinnati test system were evaluated for growth, mortality, incisor eruption, eye opening, vaginal patency, surface righting, negative geotaxis, pivoting, auditory startle, olfactory orientation, swimming ontogeny, figure-8 activity, and complex water maze (Biel) problem solving [10].

High impact information on Incisor

  • Mild HPE can consist of signs such as a single central incisor, hypotelorism, microcephaly, or other craniofacial findings that can be present with or without associated brain malformations [11].
  • Previously we showed that epidermal growth factor (EGF) reverses delayed eyelid opening and incisor eruption in Ta mice [12].
  • The inhibition of BMP signaling early in mandible development by the action of exogenous Noggin protein resulted in ectopic Barx-1 expression in the distal, presumptive incisor mesenchyme and a transformation of tooth identity from incisor to molar [13].
  • Analysis of tooth development in activin betaA mutant embryos shows that incisor and mandibular molar teeth fail to develop beyond the bud stage [14].
  • In addition, hypomorphic Pax9 mutants show defects in enamel formation of the continuously growing incisors, whereas molars exhibit increased attrition and reparative dentin formation [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Incisor


Biological context of Incisor


Anatomical context of Incisor

  • Homozygous Pax9neo mutants (Pax9neo/neo) exhibit hypoplastic or missing lower incisors and third molars, and when combined with the null allele Pax9lacZ, the compound mutants (Pax9neo/lacZ) develop severe forms of oligodontia [15].
  • Taken together, these results suggest that FGF10 is a survival factor that maintains the stem cell population in developing incisor germs [24].
  • Prior to demineralization, rat incisor dentin was extracted with 4 M guanidine hydrochloride (GdmCl) containing enzyme inhibitors [25].
  • We also demonstrate that mouse incisor ameloblasts are sensitive to the toxic effects of high dose fluoride in drinking water [26].
  • In incisors studied at an early appositional phase, Msx2 is widely expressed in the tooth, primarily in ovoid preodontoblasts and subjacent dental papilla cells [27].

Associations of Incisor with chemical compounds

  • Most of the NCPs were extracted when the incisors were decalcified with an EDTA solution containing protease inhibitors [25].
  • Rechromatography of this fraction by two different procedures separated the material into a complex glycoprotein-containing fraction and, a single rat incisor phosphoprotein peak (RIP) [25].
  • Rat incisor phosphoprotein. The nature of the phosphate and quantitation of the phosphoserine [28].
  • The effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on cellular differentiation of the neonatal mouse mandibular incisor was examined autoradiographically using tritiated thymidine ([3H]TDR) and tritiated proline ([3H]PRO) [29].
  • Proteoglycans were extracted from non-mineralized portions (predentine) of rat incisors with 4M-guanidinium chloride and subsequently from dentine by demineralization with a 0.4M-EDTA solution containing 4M-guanidinium chloride [30].

Gene context of Incisor

  • Enam(Rgsc521) heterozygotes showed a hypomaturation-type AI phenotype in the incisors, possibly due to haploinsufficiency of Enam [31].
  • The incisor germs of FGF10-null mice proceeded to cap stage normally [24].
  • Using fate analysis, we show that these distal Hand2-positive cells probably contribute to lower incisor formation [32].
  • Recently, a mouse incisor was used as a model to show that fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 10 regulates mitogenesis and fate decision of adult stem cells [24].
  • We show that most lower jaw structures in Ednra(-/-) embryos undergo a homeotic transformation into maxillary-like structures similar to those observed in Dlx5/Dlx6(-/-) embryos, though lower incisors are still present in both mutant embryos [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Incisor


  1. Mice lacking both macrophage- and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor have macrophages and coexistent osteopetrosis and severe lung disease. Lieschke, G.J., Stanley, E., Grail, D., Hodgson, G., Sinickas, V., Gall, J.A., Sinclair, R.A., Dunn, A.R. Blood (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Effect of the X-linked gene Tabby (Ta) on eyelid opening and incisor eruption in neonatal mice is opposite to that of epidermal growth factor. Kapalanga, J., Blecher, S.R. Development (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Dental phosphoprotein-induced formation of hydroxylapatite during in vitro synthesis of amorphous calcium phosphate. Nawrot, C.F., Campbell, D.J., Schroeder, J.K., Van Valkenburg, M. Biochemistry (1976) [Pubmed]
  4. Patterns of dental fluorosis in a European country in relation to the fluoride concentration of drinking water. Larsen, M.J., Kirkegaard, E., Poulsen, S. J. Dent. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  5. Dental abnormalities associated with failure of tooth eruption in src knockout and op/op mice. Tiffee, J.C., Xing, L., Nilsson, S., Boyce, B.F. Calcif. Tissue Int. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Perinatal treatment with glucocorticoids and the risk of maldevelopment of the brain. Benesová, O., Pavlík, A. Neuropharmacology (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Developmental effects of phenytoin may differ depending on sex of offspring. McCartney, M.A., Scinto, P.L., Wang, S.S., Altan, S. Neurotoxicology and teratology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Cohen syndrome with insulin resistance and seizure. Atabek, M.E., Keskin, M., Kurtoğlu, S., Kumandas, S. Pediatric neurology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Pulpal anesthesia dependent on epinephrine dose in 2% lidocaine. A randomized controlled double-blind crossover study. Knoll-Köhler, E., Förtsch, G. Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Behavioral effects of prenatal d-amphetamine in rats: a parallel trial to the Collaborative Behavioral Teratology Study. Vorhees, C.V. Neurobehavioral toxicology and teratology. (1985) [Pubmed]
  11. Mutations in the homeodomain of the human SIX3 gene cause holoprosencephaly. Wallis, D.E., Roessler, E., Hehr, U., Nanni, L., Wiltshire, T., Richieri-Costa, A., Gillessen-Kaesbach, G., Zackai, E.H., Rommens, J., Muenke, M. Nat. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Induction of sweat glands by epidermal growth factor in murine X-linked anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. Blecher, S.R., Kapalanga, J., Lalonde, D. Nature (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Transformation of tooth type induced by inhibition of BMP signaling. Tucker, A.S., Matthews, K.L., Sharpe, P.T. Science (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Activin is an essential early mesenchymal signal in tooth development that is required for patterning of the murine dentition. Ferguson, C.A., Tucker, A.S., Christensen, L., Lau, A.L., Matzuk, M.M., Sharpe, P.T. Genes Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Reduction of Pax9 gene dosage in an allelic series of mouse mutants causes hypodontia and oligodontia. Kist, R., Watson, M., Wang, X., Cairns, P., Miles, C., Reid, D.J., Peters, H. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Effects of fluoride on matrix proteins and their properties in rat secretory enamel. Aoba, T., Moreno, E.C., Tanabe, T., Fukae, M. J. Dent. Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. Suramin-induced mucopolysaccharidosis in rat incisor. Gritli, A., Septier, D., Goldberg, M. Cell Tissue Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. The dentinal structure of equine incisors: a light and scanning electron-microscopic study. Muylle, S., Simoens, P., Lauwers, H. Cells Tissues Organs (Print) (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Epithelial-induced intrapulpal denticles in B6C3F1 mice. Long, P.H., Herbert, R.A. Toxicologic pathology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Serum creatine kinase isoenzyme BB in mammalian osteopetrosis. Bollerslev, J., Ueland, T., Landaas, S., Marks, S.C. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Linkage of a human brain malformation, familial holoprosencephaly, to chromosome 7 and evidence for genetic heterogeneity. Muenke, M., Gurrieri, F., Bay, C., Yi, D.H., Collins, A.L., Johnson, V.P., Hennekam, R.C., Schaefer, G.B., Weik, L., Lubinsky, M.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Full-length sequence, localization, and chromosomal mapping of ameloblastin. A novel tooth-specific gene. Krebsbach, P.H., Lee, S.K., Matsuki, Y., Kozak, C.A., Yamada, K.M., Yamada, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Localization of epidermal growth factor receptors in cells of the enamel organ of the rat incisor. Martineau-Doizé, B., Warshawsky, H., Dickson, K., Lai, W.H., Bergeron, J.J. Dev. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. FGF10 maintains stem cell compartment in developing mouse incisors. Harada, H., Toyono, T., Toyoshima, K., Yamasaki, M., Itoh, N., Kato, S., Sekine, K., Ohuchi, H. Development (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Noncollagenous proteins of dentin. A re-examination of proteins from rat incisor dentin utilizing techniques to avoid artifacts. Linde, A., Bhown, M., Butler, W.T. J. Biol. Chem. (1980) [Pubmed]
  26. Fluoride induces endoplasmic reticulum stress in ameloblasts responsible for dental enamel formation. Kubota, K., Lee, D.H., Tsuchiya, M., Young, C.S., Everett, E.T., Martinez-Mier, E.A., Snead, M.L., Nguyen, L., Urano, F., Bartlett, J.D. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Reciprocal temporospatial patterns of Msx2 and Osteocalcin gene expression during murine odontogenesis. Bidder, M., Latifi, T., Towler, D.A. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Rat incisor phosphoprotein. The nature of the phosphate and quantitation of the phosphoserine. Richardson, W.S., Munksgaard, E.C., Butler, W.T. J. Biol. Chem. (1978) [Pubmed]
  29. The effect of epidermal growth factor on neonatal incisor differentiation in the mouse. Topham, R.T., Chiego, D.J., Gattone, V.H., Hinton, D.A., Klein, R.M. Dev. Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  30. Isolation and partial characterization of proteoglycans from rat incisors. Rahemtulla, F., Prince, C.W., Butler, W.T. Biochem. J. (1984) [Pubmed]
  31. Enamelin (Enam) is essential for amelogenesis: ENU-induced mouse mutants as models for different clinical subtypes of human amelogenesis imperfecta (AI). Masuya, H., Shimizu, K., Sezutsu, H., Sakuraba, Y., Nagano, J., Shimizu, A., Fujimoto, N., Kawai, A., Miura, I., Kaneda, H., Kobayashi, K., Ishijima, J., Maeda, T., Gondo, Y., Noda, T., Wakana, S., Shiroishi, T. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. Endothelin-A receptor-dependent and -independent signaling pathways in establishing mandibular identity. Ruest, L.B., Xiang, X., Lim, K.C., Levi, G., Clouthier, D.E. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  33. Nociceptive stimulation activates locus coeruleus neurones projecting to the somatosensory thalamus in the rat. Voisin, D.L., Guy, N., Chalus, M., Dallel, R. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. Biochemical characterization of guanidinium chloride-soluble dentine collagen from lathyritic-rat incisors. Wohllebe, M., Carmichael, D.J. Biochem. J. (1979) [Pubmed]
  35. Histochemical demonstration of carbonic anhydrase activity in the odontogenic cells of the rat incisor. Sugimoto, T., Ogawa, Y., Kuwahara, H., Shimazaki, M., Yagi, T., Sakai, A. J. Dent. Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  36. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene (CFTR) is associated with abnormal enamel formation. Arquitt, C.K., Boyd, C., Wright, J.T. J. Dent. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  37. Effect of NOS Inhibitor on Cytokine and COX2 Expression in Rat Pulpitis. Kawashima, N., Nakano-Kawanishi, H., Suzuki, N., Takagi, M., Suda, H. J. Dent. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
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