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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Triclabendazole biotransformation and comparative diffusion of the parent drug and its oxidized metabolites into Fasciola hepatica.

Triclabendazole (TCBZ) is an halogenated trematodicidal benzimidazole compound extensively used in veterinary medicine. It is active against immature and adult stages of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica. Free and conjugated TCBZ metabolites have been identified in the bile of treated sheep. The experimental aims were to characterize the in vitro patterns of TCBZ biotransformation both in the animal host (sheep liver microsomes) and target parasite (F. hepatica microsomal preparation); and to compare the ex vivo diffusion of TCBZ parent drug and its oxidized metabolites (TCBZ sulphoxide [TCBZSO], TCBZ sulphone [TCBZSO2], and TCBZ-hydroxy derivatives) into F. hepatica. Additionally, the octanol-water partition coefficients for TCBZ and all its metabolites were estimated as an indicator of the relationship between drug lipophilicity and diffusion into the target parasite. Drug/metabolites concentrations were quantified by HPLC after sample clean up and a solvent-mediated chemical extraction. Sheep liver microsomes metabolized TCBZ into its sulphoxide and sulphone metabolites after 30 min of incubation. The rate of TCBZ sulphoxidation in the liver was significantly greater (p < 0.01) than that observed for the sulphonation of TCBZSO. The trematode parasite oxidized TCBZ into its sulphoxide metabolite after 60 min of incubation at a metabolic rate of 0.09 nmol min(-1) mg protein(-1). TCBZ and all its oxidized metabolic products were recovered from F. hepatica as early as 15 min after their ex vivo incubation in a Kreb's Ringer Tris buffer. However, the diffusion of the hydroxy-derivatives into the fluke was lower than that observed for TCBZ, TCBZSO and TCBZSO2. There was a high correlation (r=0.82) between drug lipophilicity (expressed as octanol-water partition coefficients) and drug availability measured within the parasite. Unlike the uptake pattern previously observed for albendazole, the parent TCBZ and its sulphoxide and sulphone metabolites showed a similar ability to penetrate into the trematode parasite. Understanding the relationship between TCBZ metabolism, the relative pharmacological potency of its metabolic products and their ability to reach the target parasite may be critical to optimize its flukicidal activity, particularly when TCBZ resistant flukes have been already isolated in the field.[1]


  1. Triclabendazole biotransformation and comparative diffusion of the parent drug and its oxidized metabolites into Fasciola hepatica. Mottier, L., Virkel, G., Solana, H., Alvarez, L., Salles, J., Lanusse, C. Xenobiotica (2004) [Pubmed]
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