The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Induction of inflammatory cytokines and interferon responses by double-stranded and single-stranded siRNAs is sequence-dependent and requires endosomal localization.

The potential induction of inflammatory cytokines and interferon responses by small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) represents a major obstacle for their use as inhibitors of gene expression. Therapeutic applications of siRNAs will require a better understanding of the mechanisms that trigger such unwanted effects, especially in freshly isolated human cells. Surprisingly, the induction of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in adherent peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was not restricted to double-stranded siRNAs, because induction was also obtained with single-stranded siRNAs (sense or antisense strands). The immunostimulatory effects were sequence-dependent, since only certain sequences are prone to induce inflammatory responses while others are not. The induction of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) was chloroquine-sensitive and dependent more likely on endosomal Toll-like receptor signaling in particular TLR8. Indeed, no significant immunostimulatory effects were detected when either double or single-stranded siRNAs were delivered directly to cytoplasm via electroporation. Both RNA types activated a NF-kappaB promoter-driven luciferase gene in transiently transfected human adherent PBMC. Moreover, culture of immature dendritic cells with either double or single-stranded siRNAs stimulated interleukin-12 production and induced the expression of CD83, an activation marker. Interestingly, several double-stranded siRNAs did not induce TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IFN-alpha production, however, their single-stranded sense or antisense did. Taken together, the present data indicate for the first time that the induction of inflammatory cytokines and IFN-alpha responses by either double-stranded or single-stranded siRNAs in adherent PBMC is sequence-dependent and requires endosomal intracellular signaling. The finding that endosomal localization of self-RNAs (sense strands) can trigger Toll-like receptor signaling in adherent human PBMC is intriguing because it indicates that endosomal self-RNAs can display a molecular pattern capable for activating innate immunity.[1]


WikiGenes - Universities