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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Inhibition of Rac GTPase triggers a c-Jun- and Bim-dependent mitochondrial apoptotic cascade in cerebellar granule neurons.

Rho GTPases are key transducers of integrin/extracellular matrix and growth factor signaling. Although integrin-mediated adhesion and trophic support suppress neuronal apoptosis, the role of Rho GTPases in neuronal survival is unclear. Here, we have identified Rac as a critical pro-survival GTPase in cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) and elucidated a death pathway triggered by its inactivation. GTP-loading of Rac1 was maintained in CGNs by integrin-mediated (RGD-dependent) cell attachment and trophic support. Clostridium difficile toxin B (ToxB), a specific Rho family inhibitor, induced a selective caspase- mediated degradation of Rac1 without affecting RhoA or Cdc42 protein levels. Both ToxB and dominant-negative N17Rac1 elicited CGN apoptosis, characterized by cytochrome c release and activation of caspase-9 and -3, whereas dominant-negative N19RhoA or N17Cdc42 did not cause significant cell death. ToxB stimulated mitochondrial translocation and conformational activation of Bax, c-Jun activation, and induction of the BH3-only protein Bim. Similarly, c-Jun activation and Bim induction were observed with N17Rac1. A c-jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK)/p38 inhibitor, SB203580, and a JNK-specific inhibitor, SP600125, significantly decreased ToxB-induced Bim expression and blunted each subsequent step of the apoptotic cascade. These results indicate that Rac acts downstream of integrins and growth factors to promote neuronal survival by repressing c-Jun/Bim-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis.[1]


  1. Inhibition of Rac GTPase triggers a c-Jun- and Bim-dependent mitochondrial apoptotic cascade in cerebellar granule neurons. Le, S.S., Loucks, F.A., Udo, H., Richardson-Burns, S., Phelps, R.A., Bouchard, R.J., Barth, H., Aktories, K., Tyler, K.L., Kandel, E.R., Heidenreich, K.A., Linseman, D.A. J. Neurochem. (2005) [Pubmed]
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