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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and in vivo of the protein farnesyltransferase inhibitor tipifarnib.

Protein farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) have shown clinical responses in hematologic malignancies, but the mechanisms are unclear. To better understand potential mechanisms of action, we have studied effects of the FTI tipifarnib on inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo. In a human leukemia cell line THP-1, tipifarnib inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced transcription of chemokines [monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 and MCP-2], cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and interferon (IFN)beta], signaling molecules (MyD88 and STAT-1), proteases [matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9)], and receptors (urokinase receptor). Tipifarnib also inhibited LPS-induced secretion of MMP-9, IL-6, MCP-1, and IL-1beta in THP-1 cells. In primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, dose-dependent inhibition of LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, IL-6, MCP-1, and IL-1beta by tipifarnib was observed with no evidence of cytotoxicity. Similar results were obtained in vivo in a murine model of LPS-induced inflammation, where pretreatment with tipifarnib resulted in significant inhibition of TNF-alpha, IL-6, MCP-1, IL-1beta, and MIP-1alpha production. Tipifarnib had no effect in vitro or in vivo on LPS-induced IL-8. Studies in THP-1 cells to address potential mechanism(s) showed that tipifarnib partially inhibited LPS-induced p38 phosphorylation. Tipifarnib significantly inhibited inhibitory subunit of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) (IkappaB)-alpha degradation and p65 nuclear translocation induced by LPS, but not by tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-1alpha, or toll-like receptor (TLR)2 ligand, suggesting that the target for inhibition of NF-kappaB activation was exclusive to the LPS/TLR4 signal pathway. The extent of IkappaB-alpha degradation inhibition did not correlate with inhibition of Ras farnesylation, indicating that Ras was not the target for the observed anti-inflammatory activity of tipifarnib. Our findings differ from those for other FTIs, which may have relevance for their dissimilar activity in specific tumor repertoires.[1]


  1. Anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and in vivo of the protein farnesyltransferase inhibitor tipifarnib. Xue, X., Lai, K.T., Huang, J.F., Gu, Y., Karlsson, L., Fourie, A. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2006) [Pubmed]
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