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Gene Review

CCL2  -  chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: C-C motif chemokine 2, GDCF-2, HC11, HSMCR30, MCAF, ...
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Disease relevance of CCL2


Psychiatry related information on CCL2


High impact information on CCL2


Chemical compound and disease context of CCL2


Biological context of CCL2


Anatomical context of CCL2


Associations of CCL2 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of CCL2


Enzymatic interactions of CCL2


Regulatory relationships of CCL2

  • In summary, iNKTs migrate toward neuroblastoma cells in a CCL2-dependent manner, preferentially infiltrating MYCN nonamplified tumors that express CCL2 [1].
  • In this report, we show that MCP-1 binding to the CCR2 receptor in Mono Mac 1 cells promotes the rapid desensitization of MCP-1-induced calcium flux responses [39].
  • RANTES was expressed almost exclusively by T cells whereas the expression of MCP-1, MIP-1alpha, and MIP-1beta was confined largely to macrophages [40].
  • Binding studies showed that eotaxin displaces (125) I-MCP-1 from monocytes in a concentration-dependent manner, and functional experiments showed that eotaxin inhibits MCP-1-induced chemotaxis and enzyme release [41].
  • CONCLUSION: SSc fibroblasts display a specific pattern of chemokine gene expression that is characterized by constitutively increased and abnormally regulated expression of MCP-1 in vitro [42].
  • This GM-CSF-induced MCP-1 expression, measured as both protein and mRNA levels, was down-regulated by atorvastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitor [43].

Other interactions of CCL2


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CCL2


  1. Natural killer T cells infiltrate neuroblastomas expressing the chemokine CCL2. Metelitsa, L.S., Wu, H.W., Wang, H., Yang, Y., Warsi, Z., Asgharzadeh, S., Groshen, S., Wilson, S.B., Seeger, R.C. J. Exp. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. The CC chemokine MCP-1/CCL2 in pancreatic cancer progression: regulation of expression and potential mechanisms of antimalignant activity. Monti, P., Leone, B.E., Marchesi, F., Balzano, G., Zerbi, A., Scaltrini, F., Pasquali, C., Calori, G., Pessi, F., Sperti, C., Di Carlo, V., Allavena, P., Piemonti, L. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. The role of MCP-1 (CCL2) and CCR2 in multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Mahad, D.J., Ransohoff, R.M. Semin. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Viral expression of CCL2 is sufficient to induce demyelination in RAG1-/- mice infected with a neurotropic coronavirus. Kim, T.S., Perlman, S. J. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and its role in insulin resistance. Sell, H., Eckel, J. Curr. Opin. Lipidol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  6. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue: characterization of interstitial concentration and regulation of gene expression by insulin. Murdolo, G., Hammarstedt, A., Sandqvist, M., Schmelz, M., Herder, C., Smith, U., Jansson, P.A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2007) [Pubmed]
  7. MCP-1 Promoter Polymorphism at 2518 is associated with metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma after treatment. Tse, K.P., Tsang, N.M., Chen, K.D., Li, H.P., Liang, Y., Hsueh, C., Chang, K.P., Yu, J.S., Hao, S.P., Hsieh, L.L., Chang, Y.S. Clin. Cancer Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  8. Chronic expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in the central nervous system causes delayed encephalopathy and impaired microglial function in mice. Huang, D., Wujek, J., Kidd, G., He, T.T., Cardona, A., Sasse, M.E., Stein, E.J., Kish, J., Tani, M., Charo, I.F., Proudfoot, A.E., Rollins, B.J., Handel, T., Ransohoff, R.M. FASEB J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. No evidence for association of the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (-2518) gene polymorphism and Alzheimer's disease. Combarros, O., Infante, J., Llorca, J., Berciano, J. Neurosci. Lett. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Serum levels of the MCP-1 chemokine in patients with ischemic stroke and myocardial infarction. Arakelyan, A., Petrkova, J., Hermanova, Z., Boyajyan, A., Lukl, J., Petrek, M. Mediators of inflammation. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Pulmonary sarcoidosis: a disorder mediated by excess helper T-lymphocyte activity at sites of disease activity. Hunninghake, G.W., Crystal, R.G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  12. Maintenance of granuloma formation in pulmonary sarcoidosis by T lymphocytes within the lung. Hunninghake, G.W., Gadek, J.E., Young, R.C., Kawanami, O., Ferrans, V.J., Crystal, R.G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  13. MCP-1 and IL-8 trigger firm adhesion of monocytes to vascular endothelium under flow conditions. Gerszten, R.E., Garcia-Zepeda, E.A., Lim, Y.C., Yoshida, M., Ding, H.A., Gimbrone, M.A., Luster, A.D., Luscinskas, F.W., Rosenzweig, A. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Decreased lesion formation in CCR2-/- mice reveals a role for chemokines in the initiation of atherosclerosis. Boring, L., Gosling, J., Cleary, M., Charo, I.F. Nature (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Chemokines in the MPTP model of Parkinson's disease: Absence of CCL2 and its receptor CCR2 does not protect against striatal neurodegeneration. Kalkonde, Y.V., Morgan, W.W., Sigala, J., Maffi, S.K., Condello, C., Kuziel, W., Ahuja, S.S., Ahuja, S.K. Brain Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  16. Steroid therapy altered serum levels of CCL2 and CCL5 chemokines in multiple sclerosis patients during relapse. Bartosik-Psujek, H., Stelmasiak, Z. Eur. Neurol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Chemokines in health and disease. Gangur, V., Birmingham, N.P., Thanesvorakul, S. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Elevated ex vivo monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (CCL2) in pulmonary as compared with extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. Hasan, Z., Zaidi, I., Jamil, B., Khan, M.A., Kanji, A., Hussain, R. BMC Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Expression of a monocyte chemotactic cytokine by human mononuclear phagocytes. Colotta, F., Borré, A., Wang, J.M., Tattanelli, M., Maddalena, F., Polentarutti, N., Peri, G., Mantovani, A. J. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Francisella tularensis selectively induces proinflammatory changes in endothelial cells. Forestal, C.A., Benach, J.L., Carbonara, C., Italo, J.K., Lisinski, T.J., Furie, M.B. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase is regulated by chemokines monocyte-chemoattractant protein-1/ccl2 and interleukin-8/CXCL8 in endothelial cells during angiogenesis. Gálvez, B.G., Genís, L., Matías-Román, S., Oblander, S.A., Tryggvason, K., Apte, S.S., Arroyo, A.G. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. CCR2 expressing CD4+ T lymphocytes are preferentially recruited to the ileum in Crohn's disease. Connor, S.J., Paraskevopoulos, N., Newman, R., Cuan, N., Hampartzoumian, T., Lloyd, A.R., Grimm, M.C. Gut (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Regulation of monocyte chemokine and MMP-9 secretion by proinflammatory cytokines in tuberculous osteomyelitis. Wright, K.M., Friedland, J.S. J. Leukoc. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Pivotal function for cytoplasmic protein FROUNT in CCR2-mediated monocyte chemotaxis. Terashima, Y., Onai, N., Murai, M., Enomoto, M., Poonpiriya, V., Hamada, T., Motomura, K., Suwa, M., Ezaki, T., Haga, T., Kanegasaki, S., Matsushima, K. Nat. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Induces Macrophage Recruitment via CC Chemokine Ligand 2. Gregory, J.L., Morand, E.F., McKeown, S.J., Ralph, J.A., Hall, P., Yang, Y.H., McColl, S.R., Hickey, M.J. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Chemokine receptor CCR2 expression by systemic sclerosis fibroblasts: evidence for autocrine regulation of myofibroblast differentiation. Carulli, M.T., Ong, V.H., Ponticos, M., Shiwen, X., Abraham, D.J., Black, C.M., Denton, C.P. Arthritis Rheum. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. MEK/ERK and signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling pathways modulate oncostatin M-stimulated CCL2 expression in human osteoblasts through a common transcription factor. Lin, S.K., Kok, S.H., Yeh, F.T., Kuo, M.Y., Lin, C.C., Wang, C.C., Goldring, S.R., Hong, C.Y. Arthritis Rheum. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Monocyte-astrocyte networks and the regulation of chemokine secretion in neurocysticercosis. Uddin, J., Garcia, H.H., Gilman, R.H., Gonzalez, A.E., Friedland, J.S. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. Chemokine production by G protein-coupled receptor activation in a human mast cell line: roles of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and NFAT. Ali, H., Ahamed, J., Hernandez-Munain, C., Baron, J.L., Krangel, M.S., Patel, D.D. J. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Astrocyte differentiation selectively upregulates CCL2/monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in cultured human brain-derived progenitor cells. Lawrence, D.M., Seth, P., Durham, L., Diaz, F., Boursiquot, R., Ransohoff, R.M., Major, E.O. Glia (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Targeting CCL2 with systemic delivery of neutralizing antibodies induces prostate cancer tumor regression in vivo. Loberg, R.D., Ying, C., Craig, M., Day, L.L., Sargent, E., Neeley, C., Wojno, K., Snyder, L.A., Yan, L., Pienta, K.J. Cancer Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  32. Defective expression of the monocyte chemotactic protein-1 receptor CCR2 in macrophages associated with human ovarian carcinoma. Sica, A., Saccani, A., Bottazzi, B., Bernasconi, S., Allavena, P., Gaetano, B., Fei, F., LaRosa, G., Scotton, C., Balkwill, F., Mantovani, A. J. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. Monocyte chemotactic protein MCP-2 activates human basophil and eosinophil leukocytes similar to MCP-3. Weber, M., Uguccioni, M., Ochensberger, B., Baggiolini, M., Clark-Lewis, I., Dahinden, C.A. J. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  34. Human fibroblasts express functional IL-2 receptors formed by the IL-2R alpha- and beta-chain subunits: association of IL-2 binding with secretion of the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. Gruss, H.J., Scott, C., Rollins, B.J., Brach, M.A., Herrmann, F. J. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  35. A role for NF-kappa B binding motifs in the differential induction of chemokine gene expression in human corneal epithelial cells. Ritchie, M.H., Fillmore, R.A., Lausch, R.N., Oakes, J.E. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  36. The CC chemokine monocyte chemotactic peptide-1 activates both the class I p85/p110 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and the class II PI3K-C2alpha. Turner, S.J., Domin, J., Waterfield, M.D., Ward, S.G., Westwick, J. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  37. Synergistic enhancement of cytokine-induced human monocyte matrix metalloproteinase-1 by C-reactive protein and oxidized LDL through differential regulation of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and prostaglandin E2. Zhang, Y., Wahl, L.M. J. Leukoc. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  38. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 causes differential signalling mediated by proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 in THP-1 cells. Yamasaki, M., Arai, H., Ashida, N., Ishii, K., Kita, T. Biochem. J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  39. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1-induced CCR2B receptor desensitization mediated by the G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2. Aragay, A.M., Mellado, M., Frade, J.M., Martin, A.M., Jimenez-Sainz, M.C., Martinez-A, C., Mayor, F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  40. CC chemokines and the receptors CCR3 and CCR5 are differentially expressed in the nonneoplastic leukocytic infiltrates of Hodgkin disease. Buri, C., Körner, M., Schärli, P., Cefai, D., Uguccioni, M., Mueller, C., Laissue, J.A., Mazzucchelli, L. Blood (2001) [Pubmed]
  41. Eotaxin is a natural antagonist for CCR2 and an agonist for CCR5. Ogilvie, P., Bardi, G., Clark-Lewis, I., Baggiolini, M., Uguccioni, M. Blood (2001) [Pubmed]
  42. Chemokine expression by systemic sclerosis fibroblasts: abnormal regulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 expression. Galindo, M., Santiago, B., Rivero, M., Rullas, J., Alcami, J., Pablos, J.L. Arthritis Rheum. (2001) [Pubmed]
  43. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression is enhanced by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor via Jak2-Stat5 signaling and inhibited by atorvastatin in human monocytic U937 cells. Tanimoto, A., Murata, Y., Wang, K.Y., Tsutsui, M., Kohno, K., Sasaguri, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2008) [Pubmed]
  44. Chemokines as regulators of T cell differentiation. Luther, S.A., Cyster, J.G. Nat. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  45. Monocyte chemotactic protein 4 (MCP-4), a novel structural and functional analogue of MCP-3 and eotaxin. Uguccioni, M., Loetscher, P., Forssmann, U., Dewald, B., Li, H., Lima, S.H., Li, Y., Kreider, B., Garotta, G., Thelen, M., Baggiolini, M. J. Exp. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  46. Monocyte chemotactic protein 3 is a most effective basophil- and eosinophil-activating chemokine. Dahinden, C.A., Geiser, T., Brunner, T., von Tscharner, V., Caput, D., Ferrara, P., Minty, A., Baggiolini, M. J. Exp. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  47. Formation of eosinophilic and monocytic intradermal inflammatory sites in the dog by injection of human RANTES but not human monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, human macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha, or human interleukin 8. Meurer, R., Van Riper, G., Feeney, W., Cunningham, P., Hora, D., Springer, M.S., MacIntyre, D.E., Rosen, H. J. Exp. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  48. CCL2 protects prostate cancer PC3 cells from autophagic death via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT-dependent survivin up-regulation. Roca, H., Varsos, Z., Pienta, K.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2008) [Pubmed]
  49. Analysis of the gene expression profile activated by the CC chemokine ligand 5/RANTES and by lipopolysaccharide in human monocytes. Locati, M., Deuschle, U., Massardi, M.L., Martinez, F.O., Sironi, M., Sozzani, S., Bartfai, T., Mantovani, A. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  50. Human pancreatic islets produce and secrete MCP-1/CCL2: relevance in human islet transplantation. Piemonti, L., Leone, B.E., Nano, R., Saccani, A., Monti, P., Maffi, P., Bianchi, G., Sica, A., Peri, G., Melzi, R., Aldrighetti, L., Secchi, A., Di Carlo, V., Allavena, P., Bertuzzi, F. Diabetes (2002) [Pubmed]
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