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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

NDR2 acts as the upstream kinase of ARK5 during insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling.

ARK5 is a tumor progression-associated factor that is directly phosphorylated by AKT at serine 600 in the regulatory domain, but phosphorylation at the conserved threonine residue on the active T loop has been found to be required for its full activation. In this study, we identified serine/threonine protein kinase NDR2 as a protein kinase that phosphorylates and activates ARK5 during insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 signaling. Upon stimulation with IGF-1, NDR2 was found to directly phosphorylate the conserved threonine 211 on the active T loop of ARK5 and to promote cell survival and invasion of colorectal cancer cell lines through ARK5. During IGF-1 signaling, phosphorylation at three residues (threonine 75, serine 282, and threonine 442) was also found to be required for NDR2 activation. Among these three residues, phosphorylation of serine 282 seemed to be the most important for NDR2 activation (the same as for the mouse homologue) because its aspartic acid-converted mutant (NDR2/S282D) induced ARK5- mediated cell survival and invasion activities even in the absence of IGF-1. As in the mouse homologue, threonine 75 in NDR2 was required for interaction with S100B, and binding was in a calcium ion- and phospholipase C-gamma-dependent manner. We also found that PDK-1 plays an important role in NDR2 activation especially in the phosphorylation of threonine 442. Based on the results of this study, we report here that NDR2 is an upstream kinase of ARK5 that plays an essential role in tumor progression through ARK5.[1]


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