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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Inhibition of brassinosteroid biosynthesis by either a dwarf4 mutation or a brassinosteroid biosynthesis inhibitor rescues defects in tropic responses of hypocotyls in the arabidopsis mutant nonphototropic hypocotyl 4.

The nonphototropic hypocotyl 4 (nph4)/auxin response factor 7 (arf7) mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is insensitive to auxin and has defects in hypocotyl tropism, hook formation, differential leaf growth, and lateral root formation. To understand an auxin-signaling pathway through NPH4, we carried out screening of suppressor mutants of nph4-103 and obtained a dwarf suppressor mutant, suppressor of nph4 (snp2). snp2 had short hypocotyls in the dark condition and dark green and round leaves, short petioles, and more lateral shoots than the wild type in the light condition. The snp2 phenotypes were rescued by adding brassinolide to the growth medium in both light and dark conditions. Genetic mapping, sequence analysis, and a complementation test indicated that snp2 was a weak allele of DWARF4 (DWF4), which functions in brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis. snp2, which was renamed dwf4-101, exhibited photo- and gravitropisms of hypocotyls similar to those of the wild type with a slightly faster response in gravitropism. dwf4-101 almost completely suppressed defects in both tropisms of nph4-103 hypocotyls and completely suppressed hyponastic growth of nph4-103 leaves. Treatment with brassinazole, an inhibitor of BR biosynthesis, also partially rescued the tropic defects in nph4-103. Hypocotyls of nph4-103 were auxin insensitive, whereas hypocotyls of dwf4-101 were more sensitive than those of the wild type. dwf4-101 nph4-103 hypocotyls were as sensitive as those of dwf4-101. Auxin inducibility of massugu 2 (MSG2)/IAA19 gene expression was reduced in nph4-103. mRNA level of MSG2 was reduced in dwf4-101 and dwf4-101 nph4-103, but both mutants exhibited greater auxin inducibility of MSG2 than the wild type. Taken together, dwf4-101 was epistatic to nph4-103. These results strongly suggest that BR deficiency suppresses nph4-103 defects in tropic responses of hypocotyls and differential growth of leaves and that BR negatively regulates tropic responses.[1]


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