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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) stimulates somatostatin release following activation of a GABA uptake carrier located on somatostatin nerve endings of rat cerebral cortex.

The effect of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the release of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity (SRIF-LI) was studied in synaptosomes prepared from rat cerebral cortex and exposed in superfusion to the amino acid. GABA (1-300 microM) increased the spontaneous outflow of SRIF-LI in a concentration-dependent manner. The effect of GABA was not prevented by the GABAA receptor antagonists bicuculline or picrotoxin. The GABAA receptor agonist muscimol (10-100 microM) did not affect SRIF-LI release. Similarly ineffective was the GABAB receptor agonist (-)-baclofen (100 microM). The GABA-induced SRIF-LI release was counteracted by the GABA uptake inhibitors N-(4,4-diphenyl-3-butenyl)-nipecotic acid (SK&F 89976A) and nipecotic acid. When used as a GABA carrier substrate, nipecotic acid mimicked GABA and increased SRIF-LI release; its effect was antagonized by SK&F 89976A. The mechanism involved appears to be selective for GABA inasmuch as neutral amino acids such as leucine, alpha-aminobutyric acid or valine, tested at 100 microM, had little or no effect on the release of SRIF-LI. Neither GABA (100 microM) nor nipecotic acid (300 microM) enhanced the release of cholecystokinin-like immunoreactivity. The GABA-evoked somatostatin release was calcium-dependent and tetrodotoxin-insensitive. It is concluded that a carrier for the uptake of GABA exists on somatostatin-releasing terminals of rat cerebral cortex and that GABA uptake may regulate somatostatin release. This conclusion would be compatible with the reported coexistence of GABA and somatostatin in cerebrocortical neurons.[1]


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