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Gene Review

Sst  -  somatostatin

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: SS-14, SS-28, Smst, Somatostatin
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Disease relevance of Sst


Psychiatry related information on Sst


High impact information on Sst

  • Cyclic AMP stimulates somatostatin gene transcription by phosphorylation of CREB at serine 133 [11].
  • Administration of cortistatin depresses neuronal electrical activity but, unlike somatostatin, induces low-frequency waves in the cerebral cortex and antagonizes the effects of acetylcholine on hippocampal and cortical measures of excitability [12].
  • Also, these phases of sleep are differentially sensitive to a number of endogenous neuropeptides and cytokines, including somatostatin, which has been shown to increase REM sleep without significantly affecting other phases [12].
  • Here we show that two out of four subtypes of beta-subunits tested (beta 1 and beta 3) are selectively involved in the signal transduction cascades from muscarinic M4 (ref. 4) and somatostatin receptors, respectively, to voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels [13].
  • The neuropeptide somatostatin inhibits secretion from electrically excitable cells in the pituitary, pancreas, gut and brain [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of Sst


Biological context of Sst


Anatomical context of Sst


Associations of Sst with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Sst

  • Fractional reduction of somatostatin concentration interacted with rat growth hormone releasing hormone to titrate the magnitude of pulsatile growth hormone and prolactin release in perifusion [30].
  • The aim of this study was to examine the potencies of several recently identified selective somatostatin (SRIF)-receptor ligands as inhibitors of electrogenic ion transport in the rat distal colonic mucosa with the view to identifying the SRIF receptor type involved [31].
  • Analogues of somatostatin bind selectively to brain somatostatin receptor subtypes [32].
  • These data suggest a SS receptor/G protein uncoupling as a result of binding of pentagastrin to gastrin receptors present in pancreatic acinar cell membranes [33].
  • 125I-ET-1 binding to retinal particulate preparations was not inhibited by 1 microM concentrations of somatostatin, atrial natriuretic factor, brain natriuretic peptide, thyroid-stimulating hormone, growth hormone, or insulin [34].

Co-localisations of Sst


Regulatory relationships of Sst

  • Somatostatin inhibition of basal and carbachol-stimulated gastrin release in rat antral organ culture [27].
  • While somatostatin blocked GRF-induced GH release, the augmented cAMP levels were only slightly reduced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)[38]
  • Somatostatin inhibits interleukin 6 release from rat cortical type I astrocytes via the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase [39].
  • Somatostatin and growth hormone inhibited inflammatory mediators and TNF alpha mRNA overexpressions, reduced the risk of MODS, corrected hypoalbuminemia, reversed negative nitrogen balance, and controlled the reduction of cell groups with functions and reasonably intervened SIRS caused by ANP [40].
  • We propose that bFGF regulates the short term secretion and accumulation of SS and mediates rGRF-stimulated SS expression [41].

Other interactions of Sst


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Sst

  • To investigate the functional significance of these distribution patterns, we examined the regional and cellular relationships between somatostatin axons and sst2A receptors in the rat CNS, using double-labeling immunocytochemistry [21].
  • Light and confocal microscopy revealed a significant correlation (p < 0.02) between the distribution of somatodendritic sst2A receptor immunoreactivity and that of somatostatin terminal fields, both quantitatively and qualitatively [21].
  • After treatment with L-glutamate, AMPA, or kainate, secretion of somatostatin from isolated islets was significantly stimulated under low-glucose conditions [25].
  • Somatostatin cells from the canine gastric fundus were isolated by EDTA-collagenase dispersion and counterflow elutriation, and somatostatin-like immunoreactivity (SLI) release in response to SOS was measured by radioimmunoassay [45].
  • The presence of SS-specific mRNA in 44-2C cells was shown morphologically by in situ hybridization [41].


  1. Primary structure of the gene encoding rat preprosomatostatin. Montminy, M.R., Goodman, R.H., Horovitch, S.J., Habener, J.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Isolation, characterization, and DNA sequence of the rat somatostatin gene. Tavianini, M.A., Hayes, T.E., Magazin, M.D., Minth, C.D., Dixon, J.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  3. Relative potencies of the somatostatin analogs octreotide, BIM-23014, and RC-160 on the inhibition of hormone release by cultured human endocrine tumor cells and normal rat anterior pituitary cells. Hofland, L.J., van Koetsveld, P.M., Waaijers, M., Zuyderwijk, J., Lamberts, S.W. Endocrinology (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Gene expression of hypothalamic somatostatin, growth hormone releasing factor, and their pituitary receptors in hypothyroidism. Tam, S.P., Lam, K.S., Srivastava, G. Endocrinology (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Silencing preBötzinger complex somatostatin-expressing neurons induces persistent apnea in awake rat. Tan, W., Janczewski, W.A., Yang, P., Shao, X.M., Callaway, E.M., Feldman, J.L. Nat. Neurosci. (2008) [Pubmed]
  6. Effect of food deprivation on rat gastric somatostatin and gastrin release. Koop, H., Schwab, E., Arnold, R., Creutzfeldt, W. Gastroenterology (1982) [Pubmed]
  7. Somatostatin receptors in the nucleus accumbens selectively mediate the stimulatory effect of somatostatin on locomotor activity in rats. Raynor, K., Lucki, I., Reisine, T. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. The effect of REM sleep deprivation on somatostatin and growth hormone-releasing hormone gene expression in the rat hypothalamus. Toppila, J., Asikainen, M., Alanko, L., Turek, F.W., Stenberg, D., Porkka-Heiskanen, T. Journal of sleep research. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Sleep deprivation increases somatostatin and growth hormone-releasing hormone messenger RNA in the rat hypothalamus. Toppila, J., Alanko, L., Asikainen, M., Tobler, I., Stenberg, D., Porkka-Heiskanen, T. Journal of sleep research. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Antagonistic effects of growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) and somatostatin on locomotor activity: GRF-induced hyperkinetic syndrome. Cacabelos, R., Niigawa, H., Alvarez, X.A., Muñoz, M.D., Nishimura, T., Rubia, F.J. Methods and findings in experimental and clinical pharmacology. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Cyclic AMP stimulates somatostatin gene transcription by phosphorylation of CREB at serine 133. Gonzalez, G.A., Montminy, M.R. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. A cortical neuropeptide with neuronal depressant and sleep-modulating properties. de Lecea, L., Criado, J.R., Prospero-Garcia, O., Gautvik, K.M., Schweitzer, P., Danielson, P.E., Dunlop, C.L., Siggins, G.R., Henriksen, S.J., Sutcliffe, J.G. Nature (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Different beta-subunits determine G-protein interaction with transmembrane receptors. Kleuss, C., Scherübl, H., Hescheler, J., Schultz, G., Wittig, B. Nature (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. Somatostatin stimulates Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels through protein dephosphorylation. White, R.E., Schonbrunn, A., Armstrong, D.L. Nature (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. Gastric secretion and gastrin under progressive doses of somatostatin-14 and -28 administered intraperitoneally to the rat. Seefried, G., Schmidtler, J., Schwille, P.O. Peptides (1988) [Pubmed]
  16. Effect of hypophysectomy and growth hormone administration on hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin content: relationship to age-related growth rate. Leidy, J.W., McDermott, M.T., Robbins, R.J. Neuroendocrinology (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. Somatostatin and gamma-aminobutyric acid inhibit interleukin-1 beta-stimulated release of interleukin-6 from rat C6 glioma cells. Spangelo, B.L., Horrell, S., Goodwin, A.L., Shroff, S., Jarvis, W.D. Neuroimmunomodulation (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Interaction of growth hormone-releasing factor and somatostatin on ulcer healing and mucosal growth in rats: role of gastrin and epidermal growth factor. Konturek, S.J., Brzozowski, T., Dembinski, A., Warzecha, Z., Konturek, P.K., Yanaihara, N. Digestion (1988) [Pubmed]
  19. Reciprocal regulation of antral gastrin and somatostatin gene expression by omeprazole-induced achlorhydria. Brand, S.J., Stone, D. J. Clin. Invest. (1988) [Pubmed]
  20. The somatostatin receptor subtype on rat enterochromaffinlike cells. Prinz, C., Sachs, G., Walsh, J.H., Coy, D.H., Wu, S.V. Gastroenterology (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Interrelationships between somatostatin sst2A receptors and somatostatin-containing axons in rat brain: evidence for regulation of cell surface receptors by endogenous somatostatin. Dournaud, P., Boudin, H., Schonbrunn, A., Tannenbaum, G.S., Beaudet, A. J. Neurosci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Somatostatin-28 encoded in a cloned cDNA obtained from a rat medullary thyroid carcinoma. Goodman, R.H., Jacobs, J.W., Dee, P.C., Habener, J.F. J. Biol. Chem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  23. A quantitative study of the coexistence of peptides in varicosities within the superficial laminae of the dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord. Tuchscherer, M.M., Seybold, V.S. J. Neurosci. (1989) [Pubmed]
  24. Regulation of rat pancreatic CCKB receptor and somatostatin expression by insulin. Julien, S., Laine, J., Morisset, J. Diabetes (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. A novel variant of ionotropic glutamate receptor regulates somatostatin secretion from delta-cells of islets of Langerhans. Muroyama, A., Uehara, S., Yatsushiro, S., Echigo, N., Morimoto, R., Morita, M., Hayashi, M., Yamamoto, A., Koh, D.S., Moriyama, Y. Diabetes (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Histamine secretion from rat enterochromaffinlike cells. Prinz, C., Kajimura, M., Scott, D.R., Mercier, F., Helander, H.F., Sachs, G. Gastroenterology (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. Somatostatin inhibition of basal and carbachol-stimulated gastrin release in rat antral organ culture. Harty, R.F., Maico, D.G., McGuigan, J.E. Gastroenterology (1981) [Pubmed]
  28. Growth hormone-releasing factor stimulates proliferation of somatotrophs in vitro. Billestrup, N., Swanson, L.W., Vale, W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  29. Growth hormone-releasing factor increases somatostatin release and mRNA levels in the rat periventricular nucleus via nitric oxide by activation of guanylate cyclase. Aguila, M.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  30. Fractional reduction of somatostatin concentration interacted with rat growth hormone releasing hormone to titrate the magnitude of pulsatile growth hormone and prolactin release in perifusion. Stachura, M.E., Tyler, J.M., Farmer, P.K. Neuroendocrinology (1988) [Pubmed]
  31. Somatostatin receptors mediating inhibition of basal and stimulated electrogenic ion transport in rat isolated distal colonic mucosa. McKeen, E.S., Feniuk, W., Humphrey, P.P. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  32. Analogues of somatostatin bind selectively to brain somatostatin receptor subtypes. Raynor, K., Coy, D.C., Reisine, T. J. Neurochem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  33. The effect of pentagastrin on the somatostatin receptor/effector system in rat pancreatic acinar membranes. Alvaro-Alonso, I., Muñoz-Acedo, G., Arilla, E. Regul. Pept. (1994) [Pubmed]
  34. Identification and characterization of endothelin receptor subtype B in rat retina. de Juan, J.A., Moya, F.J., Garcia de Lacoba, M., Fernandez-Cruz, A., Fernandez-Durango, R. J. Neurochem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  35. Immunohistochemical colocalization of type II angiotensin receptors with somatostatin in rat pancreas. Wong, P.F., Lee, S.S., Cheung, W.T. Regul. Pept. (2004) [Pubmed]
  36. Effect of diabetes in the BB Wistar rat on the peptidergic component of the enteric innervation. Buchan, A.M. Digestion (1990) [Pubmed]
  37. Somatostatin co-localizes with tyrosine hydroxylase in the nerve cells of discrete hypothalamic regions in rats. Sakanaka, M., Magari, S., Inoue, N. Brain Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  38. Growth hormone-releasing factor-sensitive adenylate cyclase system of purified somatotrophs: effects of guanine nucleotides, somatostatin, calcium, and magnesium. Narayanan, N., Lussier, B., French, M., Moor, B., Kraicer, J. Endocrinology (1989) [Pubmed]
  39. Somatostatin inhibits interleukin 6 release from rat cortical type I astrocytes via the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. Grimaldi, M., Florio, T., Schettini, G. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1997) [Pubmed]
  40. Mechanisms of multiple organ damages in acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Zhang, Q., Ni, Q., Cai, D., Zhang, Y., Zhang, N., Hou, L. Chin. Med. J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  41. Growth hormone-releasing factor and fibroblast growth factor regulate somatostatin gene expression. Zeytin, F.N., Rusk, S.F., De Lellis, R. Endocrinology (1988) [Pubmed]
  42. Somatostatin and the somatostatin receptor 2 are reciprocally controlled by calcineurin during cerebellar granule cell maturation. Kramer, D., Caruso, A., Nicoletti, F., Genazzani, A.A. J. Neurochem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  43. Endotoxin-induced release of interleukin-6 from rat medial basal hypothalami. Spangelo, B.L., Judd, A.M., MacLeod, R.M., Goodman, D.W., Isakson, P.C. Endocrinology (1990) [Pubmed]
  44. Evidence for corticotropin-releasing factor, neurotensin, and somatostatin in the neural pathway from the central nucleus of the amygdala to the parabrachial nucleus. Moga, M.M., Gray, T.S. J. Comp. Neurol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  45. Sucrose octasulfate stimulates gastric somatostatin release. Lucey, M.R., Park, J., DelValle, J., Wang, L.D., Yamada, T. Am. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
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