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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Apocynin normalizes hyperreactivity to phenylephrine in mesenteric arteries from cholesterol-fed mice by improving endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor response.

We studied the relationship among endothelial function, oxidative stress, and phenylephrine (PE; alpha(1)-adrenoceptor agonist)-induced contraction in mesenteric arteries from high-cholesterol (HC)-diet-fed mice. In HC mice (vs age-matched normal-diet-fed mice): (1) PE-induced contraction in endothelium-intact rings was enhanced (endothelial denudation increased contraction in "normal-diet" rings, but did not enhance it further in "HC" rings); (2) the enhanced PE-induced contraction was further enhanced in the presence of N(G)-nitro-l-arginine (L-NNA; nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) or L-NNA plus indomethacin (cyclooxygenase inhibitor) [to preserve endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)], but unchanged in the presence of charybdotoxin plus apamin (to block EDHF); (3) ACh-induced EDHF-type relaxation was reduced; and (4) oxidative stress [indicated by the plasma 8-isoprostane level (reliable systemic marker) and aortic superoxide production] was greater. In HC mice, PE-induced contraction was normalized by apocynin [NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor] or tempol (superoxide dismutase mimetic), but enhanced by NADH [NAD(P)H oxidase substrate]. Oral dietary supplementation with apocynin (30 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks) corrected the above abnormalities. Hence: (1) PE-induced contraction is modulated by the endothelium, and the enhanced contractility in HC mice results from defective EDHF signaling and elevated oxidative stress, and (2) apocynin normalizes PE-induced contraction in HC mice by improving EDHF signaling.[1]


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